gup.c 42.5 KB
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#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/errno.h>
#include <linux/err.h>
#include <linux/spinlock.h>

#include <linux/mm.h>
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#include <linux/memremap.h>
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#include <linux/pagemap.h>
#include <linux/rmap.h>
#include <linux/swap.h>
#include <linux/swapops.h>

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#include <linux/sched.h>
#include <linux/rwsem.h>
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#include <linux/hugetlb.h>
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#include <asm/mmu_context.h>
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#include <asm/pgtable.h>
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#include <asm/tlbflush.h>
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#include "internal.h"

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static struct page *no_page_table(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
		unsigned int flags)
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{
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	/*
	 * When core dumping an enormous anonymous area that nobody
	 * has touched so far, we don't want to allocate unnecessary pages or
	 * page tables.  Return error instead of NULL to skip handle_mm_fault,
	 * then get_dump_page() will return NULL to leave a hole in the dump.
	 * But we can only make this optimization where a hole would surely
	 * be zero-filled if handle_mm_fault() actually did handle it.
	 */
	if ((flags & FOLL_DUMP) && (!vma->vm_ops || !vma->vm_ops->fault))
		return ERR_PTR(-EFAULT);
	return NULL;
}
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static int follow_pfn_pte(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long address,
		pte_t *pte, unsigned int flags)
{
	/* No page to get reference */
	if (flags & FOLL_GET)
		return -EFAULT;

	if (flags & FOLL_TOUCH) {
		pte_t entry = *pte;

		if (flags & FOLL_WRITE)
			entry = pte_mkdirty(entry);
		entry = pte_mkyoung(entry);

		if (!pte_same(*pte, entry)) {
			set_pte_at(vma->vm_mm, address, pte, entry);
			update_mmu_cache(vma, address, pte);
		}
	}

	/* Proper page table entry exists, but no corresponding struct page */
	return -EEXIST;
}

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static struct page *follow_page_pte(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
		unsigned long address, pmd_t *pmd, unsigned int flags)
{
	struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
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	struct dev_pagemap *pgmap = NULL;
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	struct page *page;
	spinlock_t *ptl;
	pte_t *ptep, pte;
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retry:
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	if (unlikely(pmd_bad(*pmd)))
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		return no_page_table(vma, flags);
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	ptep = pte_offset_map_lock(mm, pmd, address, &ptl);
	pte = *ptep;
	if (!pte_present(pte)) {
		swp_entry_t entry;
		/*
		 * KSM's break_ksm() relies upon recognizing a ksm page
		 * even while it is being migrated, so for that case we
		 * need migration_entry_wait().
		 */
		if (likely(!(flags & FOLL_MIGRATION)))
			goto no_page;
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		if (pte_none(pte))
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			goto no_page;
		entry = pte_to_swp_entry(pte);
		if (!is_migration_entry(entry))
			goto no_page;
		pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
		migration_entry_wait(mm, pmd, address);
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		goto retry;
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	}
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	if ((flags & FOLL_NUMA) && pte_protnone(pte))
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		goto no_page;
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	if ((flags & FOLL_WRITE) && !pte_write(pte)) {
		pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
		return NULL;
	}
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	page = vm_normal_page(vma, address, pte);
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	if (!page && pte_devmap(pte) && (flags & FOLL_GET)) {
		/*
		 * Only return device mapping pages in the FOLL_GET case since
		 * they are only valid while holding the pgmap reference.
		 */
		pgmap = get_dev_pagemap(pte_pfn(pte), NULL);
		if (pgmap)
			page = pte_page(pte);
		else
			goto no_page;
	} else if (unlikely(!page)) {
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		if (flags & FOLL_DUMP) {
			/* Avoid special (like zero) pages in core dumps */
			page = ERR_PTR(-EFAULT);
			goto out;
		}

		if (is_zero_pfn(pte_pfn(pte))) {
			page = pte_page(pte);
		} else {
			int ret;

			ret = follow_pfn_pte(vma, address, ptep, flags);
			page = ERR_PTR(ret);
			goto out;
		}
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	}

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	if (flags & FOLL_SPLIT && PageTransCompound(page)) {
		int ret;
		get_page(page);
		pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
		lock_page(page);
		ret = split_huge_page(page);
		unlock_page(page);
		put_page(page);
		if (ret)
			return ERR_PTR(ret);
		goto retry;
	}

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	if (flags & FOLL_GET) {
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		get_page(page);
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		/* drop the pgmap reference now that we hold the page */
		if (pgmap) {
			put_dev_pagemap(pgmap);
			pgmap = NULL;
		}
	}
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	if (flags & FOLL_TOUCH) {
		if ((flags & FOLL_WRITE) &&
		    !pte_dirty(pte) && !PageDirty(page))
			set_page_dirty(page);
		/*
		 * pte_mkyoung() would be more correct here, but atomic care
		 * is needed to avoid losing the dirty bit: it is easier to use
		 * mark_page_accessed().
		 */
		mark_page_accessed(page);
	}
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	if ((flags & FOLL_MLOCK) && (vma->vm_flags & VM_LOCKED)) {
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		/* Do not mlock pte-mapped THP */
		if (PageTransCompound(page))
			goto out;

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		/*
		 * The preliminary mapping check is mainly to avoid the
		 * pointless overhead of lock_page on the ZERO_PAGE
		 * which might bounce very badly if there is contention.
		 *
		 * If the page is already locked, we don't need to
		 * handle it now - vmscan will handle it later if and
		 * when it attempts to reclaim the page.
		 */
		if (page->mapping && trylock_page(page)) {
			lru_add_drain();  /* push cached pages to LRU */
			/*
			 * Because we lock page here, and migration is
			 * blocked by the pte's page reference, and we
			 * know the page is still mapped, we don't even
			 * need to check for file-cache page truncation.
			 */
			mlock_vma_page(page);
			unlock_page(page);
		}
	}
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out:
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	pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
	return page;
no_page:
	pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
	if (!pte_none(pte))
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		return NULL;
	return no_page_table(vma, flags);
}

/**
 * follow_page_mask - look up a page descriptor from a user-virtual address
 * @vma: vm_area_struct mapping @address
 * @address: virtual address to look up
 * @flags: flags modifying lookup behaviour
 * @page_mask: on output, *page_mask is set according to the size of the page
 *
 * @flags can have FOLL_ flags set, defined in <linux/mm.h>
 *
 * Returns the mapped (struct page *), %NULL if no mapping exists, or
 * an error pointer if there is a mapping to something not represented
 * by a page descriptor (see also vm_normal_page()).
 */
struct page *follow_page_mask(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
			      unsigned long address, unsigned int flags,
			      unsigned int *page_mask)
{
	pgd_t *pgd;
	pud_t *pud;
	pmd_t *pmd;
	spinlock_t *ptl;
	struct page *page;
	struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;

	*page_mask = 0;

	page = follow_huge_addr(mm, address, flags & FOLL_WRITE);
	if (!IS_ERR(page)) {
		BUG_ON(flags & FOLL_GET);
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		return page;
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	}
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	pgd = pgd_offset(mm, address);
	if (pgd_none(*pgd) || unlikely(pgd_bad(*pgd)))
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);

	pud = pud_offset(pgd, address);
	if (pud_none(*pud))
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);
	if (pud_huge(*pud) && vma->vm_flags & VM_HUGETLB) {
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		page = follow_huge_pud(mm, address, pud, flags);
		if (page)
			return page;
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);
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	}
	if (unlikely(pud_bad(*pud)))
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);

	pmd = pmd_offset(pud, address);
	if (pmd_none(*pmd))
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);
	if (pmd_huge(*pmd) && vma->vm_flags & VM_HUGETLB) {
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		page = follow_huge_pmd(mm, address, pmd, flags);
		if (page)
			return page;
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);
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	}
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	if ((flags & FOLL_NUMA) && pmd_protnone(*pmd))
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		return no_page_table(vma, flags);
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	if (pmd_devmap(*pmd)) {
		ptl = pmd_lock(mm, pmd);
		page = follow_devmap_pmd(vma, address, pmd, flags);
		spin_unlock(ptl);
		if (page)
			return page;
	}
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	if (likely(!pmd_trans_huge(*pmd)))
		return follow_page_pte(vma, address, pmd, flags);

	ptl = pmd_lock(mm, pmd);
	if (unlikely(!pmd_trans_huge(*pmd))) {
		spin_unlock(ptl);
		return follow_page_pte(vma, address, pmd, flags);
	}
	if (flags & FOLL_SPLIT) {
		int ret;
		page = pmd_page(*pmd);
		if (is_huge_zero_page(page)) {
			spin_unlock(ptl);
			ret = 0;
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			split_huge_pmd(vma, pmd, address);
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			if (pmd_trans_unstable(pmd))
				ret = -EBUSY;
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		} else {
			get_page(page);
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			spin_unlock(ptl);
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			lock_page(page);
			ret = split_huge_page(page);
			unlock_page(page);
			put_page(page);
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			if (pmd_none(*pmd))
				return no_page_table(vma, flags);
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		}

		return ret ? ERR_PTR(ret) :
			follow_page_pte(vma, address, pmd, flags);
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	}
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	page = follow_trans_huge_pmd(vma, address, pmd, flags);
	spin_unlock(ptl);
	*page_mask = HPAGE_PMD_NR - 1;
	return page;
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}

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static int get_gate_page(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long address,
		unsigned int gup_flags, struct vm_area_struct **vma,
		struct page **page)
{
	pgd_t *pgd;
	pud_t *pud;
	pmd_t *pmd;
	pte_t *pte;
	int ret = -EFAULT;

	/* user gate pages are read-only */
	if (gup_flags & FOLL_WRITE)
		return -EFAULT;
	if (address > TASK_SIZE)
		pgd = pgd_offset_k(address);
	else
		pgd = pgd_offset_gate(mm, address);
	BUG_ON(pgd_none(*pgd));
	pud = pud_offset(pgd, address);
	BUG_ON(pud_none(*pud));
	pmd = pmd_offset(pud, address);
	if (pmd_none(*pmd))
		return -EFAULT;
	VM_BUG_ON(pmd_trans_huge(*pmd));
	pte = pte_offset_map(pmd, address);
	if (pte_none(*pte))
		goto unmap;
	*vma = get_gate_vma(mm);
	if (!page)
		goto out;
	*page = vm_normal_page(*vma, address, *pte);
	if (!*page) {
		if ((gup_flags & FOLL_DUMP) || !is_zero_pfn(pte_pfn(*pte)))
			goto unmap;
		*page = pte_page(*pte);
	}
	get_page(*page);
out:
	ret = 0;
unmap:
	pte_unmap(pte);
	return ret;
}

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/*
 * mmap_sem must be held on entry.  If @nonblocking != NULL and
 * *@flags does not include FOLL_NOWAIT, the mmap_sem may be released.
 * If it is, *@nonblocking will be set to 0 and -EBUSY returned.
 */
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static int faultin_page(struct task_struct *tsk, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
		unsigned long address, unsigned int *flags, int *nonblocking)
{
	unsigned int fault_flags = 0;
	int ret;

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	/* mlock all present pages, but do not fault in new pages */
	if ((*flags & (FOLL_POPULATE | FOLL_MLOCK)) == FOLL_MLOCK)
		return -ENOENT;
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	/* For mm_populate(), just skip the stack guard page. */
	if ((*flags & FOLL_POPULATE) &&
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			(stack_guard_page_start(vma, address) ||
			 stack_guard_page_end(vma, address + PAGE_SIZE)))
		return -ENOENT;
	if (*flags & FOLL_WRITE)
		fault_flags |= FAULT_FLAG_WRITE;
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	if (*flags & FOLL_REMOTE)
		fault_flags |= FAULT_FLAG_REMOTE;
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	if (nonblocking)
		fault_flags |= FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY;
	if (*flags & FOLL_NOWAIT)
		fault_flags |= FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY | FAULT_FLAG_RETRY_NOWAIT;
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	if (*flags & FOLL_TRIED) {
		VM_WARN_ON_ONCE(fault_flags & FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY);
		fault_flags |= FAULT_FLAG_TRIED;
	}
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	ret = handle_mm_fault(vma, address, fault_flags);
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	if (ret & VM_FAULT_ERROR) {
		if (ret & VM_FAULT_OOM)
			return -ENOMEM;
		if (ret & (VM_FAULT_HWPOISON | VM_FAULT_HWPOISON_LARGE))
			return *flags & FOLL_HWPOISON ? -EHWPOISON : -EFAULT;
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		if (ret & (VM_FAULT_SIGBUS | VM_FAULT_SIGSEGV))
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			return -EFAULT;
		BUG();
	}

	if (tsk) {
		if (ret & VM_FAULT_MAJOR)
			tsk->maj_flt++;
		else
			tsk->min_flt++;
	}

	if (ret & VM_FAULT_RETRY) {
		if (nonblocking)
			*nonblocking = 0;
		return -EBUSY;
	}

	/*
	 * The VM_FAULT_WRITE bit tells us that do_wp_page has broken COW when
	 * necessary, even if maybe_mkwrite decided not to set pte_write. We
	 * can thus safely do subsequent page lookups as if they were reads.
	 * But only do so when looping for pte_write is futile: in some cases
	 * userspace may also be wanting to write to the gotten user page,
	 * which a read fault here might prevent (a readonly page might get
	 * reCOWed by userspace write).
	 */
	if ((ret & VM_FAULT_WRITE) && !(vma->vm_flags & VM_WRITE))
		*flags &= ~FOLL_WRITE;
	return 0;
}

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static int check_vma_flags(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long gup_flags)
{
	vm_flags_t vm_flags = vma->vm_flags;
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	int write = (gup_flags & FOLL_WRITE);
	int foreign = (gup_flags & FOLL_REMOTE);
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	if (vm_flags & (VM_IO | VM_PFNMAP))
		return -EFAULT;

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	if (write) {
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		if (!(vm_flags & VM_WRITE)) {
			if (!(gup_flags & FOLL_FORCE))
				return -EFAULT;
			/*
			 * We used to let the write,force case do COW in a
			 * VM_MAYWRITE VM_SHARED !VM_WRITE vma, so ptrace could
			 * set a breakpoint in a read-only mapping of an
			 * executable, without corrupting the file (yet only
			 * when that file had been opened for writing!).
			 * Anon pages in shared mappings are surprising: now
			 * just reject it.
			 */
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			if (!is_cow_mapping(vm_flags))
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				return -EFAULT;
		}
	} else if (!(vm_flags & VM_READ)) {
		if (!(gup_flags & FOLL_FORCE))
			return -EFAULT;
		/*
		 * Is there actually any vma we can reach here which does not
		 * have VM_MAYREAD set?
		 */
		if (!(vm_flags & VM_MAYREAD))
			return -EFAULT;
	}
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	/*
	 * gups are always data accesses, not instruction
	 * fetches, so execute=false here
	 */
	if (!arch_vma_access_permitted(vma, write, false, foreign))
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		return -EFAULT;
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	return 0;
}

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/**
 * __get_user_pages() - pin user pages in memory
 * @tsk:	task_struct of target task
 * @mm:		mm_struct of target mm
 * @start:	starting user address
 * @nr_pages:	number of pages from start to pin
 * @gup_flags:	flags modifying pin behaviour
 * @pages:	array that receives pointers to the pages pinned.
 *		Should be at least nr_pages long. Or NULL, if caller
 *		only intends to ensure the pages are faulted in.
 * @vmas:	array of pointers to vmas corresponding to each page.
 *		Or NULL if the caller does not require them.
 * @nonblocking: whether waiting for disk IO or mmap_sem contention
 *
 * Returns number of pages pinned. This may be fewer than the number
 * requested. If nr_pages is 0 or negative, returns 0. If no pages
 * were pinned, returns -errno. Each page returned must be released
 * with a put_page() call when it is finished with. vmas will only
 * remain valid while mmap_sem is held.
 *
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 * Must be called with mmap_sem held.  It may be released.  See below.
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 *
 * __get_user_pages walks a process's page tables and takes a reference to
 * each struct page that each user address corresponds to at a given
 * instant. That is, it takes the page that would be accessed if a user
 * thread accesses the given user virtual address at that instant.
 *
 * This does not guarantee that the page exists in the user mappings when
 * __get_user_pages returns, and there may even be a completely different
 * page there in some cases (eg. if mmapped pagecache has been invalidated
 * and subsequently re faulted). However it does guarantee that the page
 * won't be freed completely. And mostly callers simply care that the page
 * contains data that was valid *at some point in time*. Typically, an IO
 * or similar operation cannot guarantee anything stronger anyway because
 * locks can't be held over the syscall boundary.
 *
 * If @gup_flags & FOLL_WRITE == 0, the page must not be written to. If
 * the page is written to, set_page_dirty (or set_page_dirty_lock, as
 * appropriate) must be called after the page is finished with, and
 * before put_page is called.
 *
 * If @nonblocking != NULL, __get_user_pages will not wait for disk IO
 * or mmap_sem contention, and if waiting is needed to pin all pages,
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 * *@nonblocking will be set to 0.  Further, if @gup_flags does not
 * include FOLL_NOWAIT, the mmap_sem will be released via up_read() in
 * this case.
 *
 * A caller using such a combination of @nonblocking and @gup_flags
 * must therefore hold the mmap_sem for reading only, and recognize
 * when it's been released.  Otherwise, it must be held for either
 * reading or writing and will not be released.
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 *
 * In most cases, get_user_pages or get_user_pages_fast should be used
 * instead of __get_user_pages. __get_user_pages should be used only if
 * you need some special @gup_flags.
 */
long __get_user_pages(struct task_struct *tsk, struct mm_struct *mm,
		unsigned long start, unsigned long nr_pages,
		unsigned int gup_flags, struct page **pages,
		struct vm_area_struct **vmas, int *nonblocking)
{
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	long i = 0;
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	unsigned int page_mask;
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	struct vm_area_struct *vma = NULL;
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	if (!nr_pages)
		return 0;

	VM_BUG_ON(!!pages != !!(gup_flags & FOLL_GET));

	/*
	 * If FOLL_FORCE is set then do not force a full fault as the hinting
	 * fault information is unrelated to the reference behaviour of a task
	 * using the address space
	 */
	if (!(gup_flags & FOLL_FORCE))
		gup_flags |= FOLL_NUMA;

	do {
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		struct page *page;
		unsigned int foll_flags = gup_flags;
		unsigned int page_increm;

		/* first iteration or cross vma bound */
		if (!vma || start >= vma->vm_end) {
			vma = find_extend_vma(mm, start);
			if (!vma && in_gate_area(mm, start)) {
				int ret;
				ret = get_gate_page(mm, start & PAGE_MASK,
						gup_flags, &vma,
						pages ? &pages[i] : NULL);
				if (ret)
					return i ? : ret;
				page_mask = 0;
				goto next_page;
			}
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			if (!vma || check_vma_flags(vma, gup_flags))
				return i ? : -EFAULT;
			if (is_vm_hugetlb_page(vma)) {
				i = follow_hugetlb_page(mm, vma, pages, vmas,
						&start, &nr_pages, i,
						gup_flags);
				continue;
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			}
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		}
retry:
		/*
		 * If we have a pending SIGKILL, don't keep faulting pages and
		 * potentially allocating memory.
		 */
		if (unlikely(fatal_signal_pending(current)))
			return i ? i : -ERESTARTSYS;
		cond_resched();
		page = follow_page_mask(vma, start, foll_flags, &page_mask);
		if (!page) {
			int ret;
			ret = faultin_page(tsk, vma, start, &foll_flags,
					nonblocking);
			switch (ret) {
			case 0:
				goto retry;
			case -EFAULT:
			case -ENOMEM:
			case -EHWPOISON:
				return i ? i : ret;
			case -EBUSY:
				return i;
			case -ENOENT:
				goto next_page;
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			}
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			BUG();
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		} else if (PTR_ERR(page) == -EEXIST) {
			/*
			 * Proper page table entry exists, but no corresponding
			 * struct page.
			 */
			goto next_page;
		} else if (IS_ERR(page)) {
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			return i ? i : PTR_ERR(page);
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		}
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		if (pages) {
			pages[i] = page;
			flush_anon_page(vma, page, start);
			flush_dcache_page(page);
			page_mask = 0;
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		}
next_page:
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		if (vmas) {
			vmas[i] = vma;
			page_mask = 0;
		}
		page_increm = 1 + (~(start >> PAGE_SHIFT) & page_mask);
		if (page_increm > nr_pages)
			page_increm = nr_pages;
		i += page_increm;
		start += page_increm * PAGE_SIZE;
		nr_pages -= page_increm;
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	} while (nr_pages);
	return i;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__get_user_pages);

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bool vma_permits_fault(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned int fault_flags)
{
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	bool write   = !!(fault_flags & FAULT_FLAG_WRITE);
	bool foreign = !!(fault_flags & FAULT_FLAG_REMOTE);
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	vm_flags_t vm_flags = write ? VM_WRITE : VM_READ;
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	if (!(vm_flags & vma->vm_flags))
		return false;

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	/*
	 * The architecture might have a hardware protection
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	 * mechanism other than read/write that can deny access.
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	 *
	 * gup always represents data access, not instruction
	 * fetches, so execute=false here:
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	 */
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	if (!arch_vma_access_permitted(vma, write, false, foreign))
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		return false;

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	return true;
}

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/*
 * fixup_user_fault() - manually resolve a user page fault
 * @tsk:	the task_struct to use for page fault accounting, or
 *		NULL if faults are not to be recorded.
 * @mm:		mm_struct of target mm
 * @address:	user address
 * @fault_flags:flags to pass down to handle_mm_fault()
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 * @unlocked:	did we unlock the mmap_sem while retrying, maybe NULL if caller
 *		does not allow retry
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 *
 * This is meant to be called in the specific scenario where for locking reasons
 * we try to access user memory in atomic context (within a pagefault_disable()
 * section), this returns -EFAULT, and we want to resolve the user fault before
 * trying again.
 *
 * Typically this is meant to be used by the futex code.
 *
 * The main difference with get_user_pages() is that this function will
 * unconditionally call handle_mm_fault() which will in turn perform all the
 * necessary SW fixup of the dirty and young bits in the PTE, while
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 * get_user_pages() only guarantees to update these in the struct page.
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 *
 * This is important for some architectures where those bits also gate the
 * access permission to the page because they are maintained in software.  On
 * such architectures, gup() will not be enough to make a subsequent access
 * succeed.
 *
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 * This function will not return with an unlocked mmap_sem. So it has not the
 * same semantics wrt the @mm->mmap_sem as does filemap_fault().
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 */
int fixup_user_fault(struct task_struct *tsk, struct mm_struct *mm,
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		     unsigned long address, unsigned int fault_flags,
		     bool *unlocked)
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{
	struct vm_area_struct *vma;
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	int ret, major = 0;

	if (unlocked)
		fault_flags |= FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY;
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retry:
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	vma = find_extend_vma(mm, address);
	if (!vma || address < vma->vm_start)
		return -EFAULT;

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	if (!vma_permits_fault(vma, fault_flags))
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		return -EFAULT;

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	ret = handle_mm_fault(vma, address, fault_flags);
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	major |= ret & VM_FAULT_MAJOR;
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	if (ret & VM_FAULT_ERROR) {
		if (ret & VM_FAULT_OOM)
			return -ENOMEM;
		if (ret & (VM_FAULT_HWPOISON | VM_FAULT_HWPOISON_LARGE))
			return -EHWPOISON;
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		if (ret & (VM_FAULT_SIGBUS | VM_FAULT_SIGSEGV))
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			return -EFAULT;
		BUG();
	}
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	if (ret & VM_FAULT_RETRY) {
		down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
		if (!(fault_flags & FAULT_FLAG_TRIED)) {
			*unlocked = true;
			fault_flags &= ~FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY;
			fault_flags |= FAULT_FLAG_TRIED;
			goto retry;
		}
	}

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	if (tsk) {
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		if (major)
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			tsk->maj_flt++;
		else
			tsk->min_flt++;
	}
	return 0;
}
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EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(fixup_user_fault);
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static __always_inline long __get_user_pages_locked(struct task_struct *tsk,
						struct mm_struct *mm,
						unsigned long start,
						unsigned long nr_pages,
						int write, int force,
						struct page **pages,
						struct vm_area_struct **vmas,
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						int *locked, bool notify_drop,
						unsigned int flags)
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{
	long ret, pages_done;
	bool lock_dropped;

	if (locked) {
		/* if VM_FAULT_RETRY can be returned, vmas become invalid */
		BUG_ON(vmas);
		/* check caller initialized locked */
		BUG_ON(*locked != 1);
	}

	if (pages)
		flags |= FOLL_GET;
	if (write)
		flags |= FOLL_WRITE;
	if (force)
		flags |= FOLL_FORCE;

	pages_done = 0;
	lock_dropped = false;
	for (;;) {
		ret = __get_user_pages(tsk, mm, start, nr_pages, flags, pages,
				       vmas, locked);
		if (!locked)
			/* VM_FAULT_RETRY couldn't trigger, bypass */
			return ret;

		/* VM_FAULT_RETRY cannot return errors */
		if (!*locked) {
			BUG_ON(ret < 0);
			BUG_ON(ret >= nr_pages);
		}

		if (!pages)
			/* If it's a prefault don't insist harder */
			return ret;

		if (ret > 0) {
			nr_pages -= ret;
			pages_done += ret;
			if (!nr_pages)
				break;
		}
		if (*locked) {
			/* VM_FAULT_RETRY didn't trigger */
			if (!pages_done)
				pages_done = ret;
			break;
		}
		/* VM_FAULT_RETRY triggered, so seek to the faulting offset */
		pages += ret;
		start += ret << PAGE_SHIFT;

		/*
		 * Repeat on the address that fired VM_FAULT_RETRY
		 * without FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY but with
		 * FAULT_FLAG_TRIED.
		 */
		*locked = 1;
		lock_dropped = true;
		down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
		ret = __get_user_pages(tsk, mm, start, 1, flags | FOLL_TRIED,
				       pages, NULL, NULL);
		if (ret != 1) {
			BUG_ON(ret > 1);
			if (!pages_done)
				pages_done = ret;
			break;
		}
		nr_pages--;
		pages_done++;
		if (!nr_pages)
			break;
		pages++;
		start += PAGE_SIZE;
	}
	if (notify_drop && lock_dropped && *locked) {
		/*
		 * We must let the caller know we temporarily dropped the lock
		 * and so the critical section protected by it was lost.
		 */
		up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
		*locked = 0;
	}
	return pages_done;
}

/*
 * We can leverage the VM_FAULT_RETRY functionality in the page fault
 * paths better by using either get_user_pages_locked() or
 * get_user_pages_unlocked().
 *
 * get_user_pages_locked() is suitable to replace the form:
 *
 *      down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
 *      do_something()
 *      get_user_pages(tsk, mm, ..., pages, NULL);
 *      up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
 *
 *  to:
 *
 *      int locked = 1;
 *      down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
 *      do_something()
 *      get_user_pages_locked(tsk, mm, ..., pages, &locked);
 *      if (locked)
 *          up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
 */
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long get_user_pages_locked(unsigned long start, unsigned long nr_pages,
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			   int write, int force, struct page **pages,
			   int *locked)
{
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	return __get_user_pages_locked(current, current->mm, start, nr_pages,
				       write, force, pages, NULL, locked, true,
				       FOLL_TOUCH);
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}
853
EXPORT_SYMBOL(get_user_pages_locked);
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/*
 * Same as get_user_pages_unlocked(...., FOLL_TOUCH) but it allows to
 * pass additional gup_flags as last parameter (like FOLL_HWPOISON).
 *
 * NOTE: here FOLL_TOUCH is not set implicitly and must be set by the
 * caller if required (just like with __get_user_pages). "FOLL_GET",
 * "FOLL_WRITE" and "FOLL_FORCE" are set implicitly as needed
 * according to the parameters "pages", "write", "force"
 * respectively.
 */
__always_inline long __get_user_pages_unlocked(struct task_struct *tsk, struct mm_struct *mm,
					       unsigned long start, unsigned long nr_pages,
					       int write, int force, struct page **pages,
					       unsigned int gup_flags)
{
	long ret;
	int locked = 1;
	down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
	ret = __get_user_pages_locked(tsk, mm, start, nr_pages, write, force,
				      pages, NULL, &locked, false, gup_flags);
	if (locked)
		up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
	return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__get_user_pages_unlocked);

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/*
 * get_user_pages_unlocked() is suitable to replace the form:
 *
 *      down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
 *      get_user_pages(tsk, mm, ..., pages, NULL);
 *      up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
 *
 *  with:
 *
 *      get_user_pages_unlocked(tsk, mm, ..., pages);
 *
 * It is functionally equivalent to get_user_pages_fast so
 * get_user_pages_fast should be used instead, if the two parameters
 * "tsk" and "mm" are respectively equal to current and current->mm,
 * or if "force" shall be set to 1 (get_user_pages_fast misses the
 * "force" parameter).
 */
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long get_user_pages_unlocked(unsigned long start, unsigned long nr_pages,
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			     int write, int force, struct page **pages)
{
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	return __get_user_pages_unlocked(current, current->mm, start, nr_pages,
					 write, force, pages, FOLL_TOUCH);
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}
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(get_user_pages_unlocked);
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/*
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 * get_user_pages_remote() - pin user pages in memory
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 * @tsk:	the task_struct to use for page fault accounting, or
 *		NULL if faults are not to be recorded.
 * @mm:		mm_struct of target mm
 * @start:	starting user address
 * @nr_pages:	number of pages from start to pin
 * @write:	whether pages will be written to by the caller
 * @force:	whether to force access even when user mapping is currently
 *		protected (but never forces write access to shared mapping).
 * @pages:	array that receives pointers to the pages pinned.
 *		Should be at least nr_pages long. Or NULL, if caller
 *		only intends to ensure the pages are faulted in.
 * @vmas:	array of pointers to vmas corresponding to each page.
 *		Or NULL if the caller does not require them.
 *
 * Returns number of pages pinned. This may be fewer than the number
 * requested. If nr_pages is 0 or negative, returns 0. If no pages
 * were pinned, returns -errno. Each page returned must be released
 * with a put_page() call when it is finished with. vmas will only
 * remain valid while mmap_sem is held.
 *
 * Must be called with mmap_sem held for read or write.
 *
 * get_user_pages walks a process's page tables and takes a reference to
 * each struct page that each user address corresponds to at a given
 * instant. That is, it takes the page that would be accessed if a user
 * thread accesses the given user virtual address at that instant.
 *
 * This does not guarantee that the page exists in the user mappings when
 * get_user_pages returns, and there may even be a completely different
 * page there in some cases (eg. if mmapped pagecache has been invalidated
 * and subsequently re faulted). However it does guarantee that the page
 * won't be freed completely. And mostly callers simply care that the page
 * contains data that was valid *at some point in time*. Typically, an IO
 * or similar operation cannot guarantee anything stronger anyway because
 * locks can't be held over the syscall boundary.
 *
 * If write=0, the page must not be written to. If the page is written to,
 * set_page_dirty (or set_page_dirty_lock, as appropriate) must be called
 * after the page is finished with, and before put_page is called.
 *
 * get_user_pages is typically used for fewer-copy IO operations, to get a
 * handle on the memory by some means other than accesses via the user virtual
 * addresses. The pages may be submitted for DMA to devices or accessed via
 * their kernel linear mapping (via the kmap APIs). Care should be taken to
 * use the correct cache flushing APIs.
 *
 * See also get_user_pages_fast, for performance critical applications.
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 *
 * get_user_pages should be phased out in favor of
 * get_user_pages_locked|unlocked or get_user_pages_fast. Nothing
 * should use get_user_pages because it cannot pass
 * FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY to handle_mm_fault.
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 */
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long get_user_pages_remote(struct task_struct *tsk, struct mm_struct *mm,
		unsigned long start, unsigned long nr_pages,
		int write, int force, struct page **pages,
		struct vm_area_struct **vmas)
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{
966
	return __get_user_pages_locked(tsk, mm, start, nr_pages, write, force,
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				       pages, vmas, NULL, false,
				       FOLL_TOUCH | FOLL_REMOTE);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(get_user_pages_remote);

/*
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 * This is the same as get_user_pages_remote(), just with a
 * less-flexible calling convention where we assume that the task
 * and mm being operated on are the current task's.  We also
 * obviously don't pass FOLL_REMOTE in here.
977
 */
978
long get_user_pages(unsigned long start, unsigned long nr_pages,
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		int write, int force, struct page **pages,
		struct vm_area_struct **vmas)
{
982
	return __get_user_pages_locked(current, current->mm, start, nr_pages,
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				       write, force, pages, vmas, NULL, false,
				       FOLL_TOUCH);
985
}
986
EXPORT_SYMBOL(get_user_pages);
987

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/**
 * populate_vma_page_range() -  populate a range of pages in the vma.
 * @vma:   target vma
 * @start: start address
 * @end:   end address
 * @nonblocking:
 *
 * This takes care of mlocking the pages too if VM_LOCKED is set.
 *
 * return 0 on success, negative error code on error.
 *
 * vma->vm_mm->mmap_sem must be held.
 *
 * If @nonblocking is NULL, it may be held for read or write and will
 * be unperturbed.
 *
 * If @nonblocking is non-NULL, it must held for read only and may be
 * released.  If it's released, *@nonblocking will be set to 0.
 */
long populate_vma_page_range(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
		unsigned long start, unsigned long end, int *nonblocking)
{
	struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
	unsigned long nr_pages = (end - start) / PAGE_SIZE;
	int gup_flags;

	VM_BUG_ON(start & ~PAGE_MASK);
	VM_BUG_ON(end   & ~PAGE_MASK);
	VM_BUG_ON_VMA(start < vma->vm_start, vma);
	VM_BUG_ON_VMA(end   > vma->vm_end, vma);
	VM_BUG_ON_MM(!rwsem_is_locked(&mm->mmap_sem), mm);

Eric B Munson's avatar
Eric B Munson committed
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	gup_flags = FOLL_TOUCH | FOLL_POPULATE | FOLL_MLOCK;
	if (vma->vm_flags & VM_LOCKONFAULT)
		gup_flags &= ~FOLL_POPULATE;
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	/*
	 * We want to touch writable mappings with a write fault in order
	 * to break COW, except for shared mappings because these don't COW
	 * and we would not want to dirty them for nothing.
	 */
	if ((vma->vm_flags & (VM_WRITE | VM_SHARED)) == VM_WRITE)
		gup_flags |= FOLL_WRITE;

	/*
	 * We want mlock to succeed for regions that have any permissions
	 * other than PROT_NONE.
	 */
	if (vma->vm_flags & (VM_READ | VM_WRITE | VM_EXEC))
		gup_flags |= FOLL_FORCE;

	/*
	 * We made sure addr is within a VMA, so the following will
	 * not result in a stack expansion that recurses back here.
	 */
	return __get_user_pages(current, mm, start, nr_pages, gup_flags,
				NULL, NULL, nonblocking);
}

/*
 * __mm_populate - populate and/or mlock pages within a range of address space.
 *
 * This is used to implement mlock() and the MAP_POPULATE / MAP_LOCKED mmap
 * flags. VMAs must be already marked with the desired vm_flags, and
 * mmap_sem must not be held.
 */
int __mm_populate(unsigned long start, unsigned long len, int ignore_errors)
{
	struct mm_struct *mm = current->mm;
	unsigned long end, nstart, nend;
	struct vm_area_struct *vma = NULL;
	int locked = 0;
	long ret = 0;

	VM_BUG_ON(start & ~PAGE_MASK);
	VM_BUG_ON(len != PAGE_ALIGN(len));
	end = start + len;

	for (nstart = start; nstart < end; nstart = nend) {
		/*
		 * We want to fault in pages for [nstart; end) address range.
		 * Find first corresponding VMA.
		 */
		if (!locked) {
			locked = 1;
			down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
			vma = find_vma(mm, nstart);
		} else if (nstart >= vma->vm_end)
			vma = vma->vm_next;
		if (!vma || vma->vm_start >= end)
			break;
		/*
		 * Set [nstart; nend) to intersection of desired address
		 * range with the first VMA. Also, skip undesirable VMA types.
		 */
		nend = min(end, vma->vm_end);
		if (vma->vm_flags & (VM_IO | VM_PFNMAP))
			continue;
		if (nstart < vma->vm_start)
			nstart = vma->vm_start;
		/*
		 * Now fault in a range of pages. populate_vma_page_range()
		 * double checks the vma flags, so that it won't mlock pages
		 * if the vma was already munlocked.
		 */
		ret = populate_vma_page_range(vma, nstart, nend, &locked);
		if (ret < 0) {
			if (ignore_errors) {
				ret = 0;
				continue;	/* continue at next VMA */
			}
			break;
		}
		nend = nstart + ret * PAGE_SIZE;
		ret = 0;
	}
	if (locked)
		up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
	return ret;	/* 0 or negative error code */
}

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/**
 * get_dump_page() - pin user page in memory while writing it to core dump
 * @addr: user address
 *
 * Returns struct page pointer of user page pinned for dump,
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 * to be freed afterwards by put_page().
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 *
 * Returns NULL on any kind of failure - a hole must then be inserted into
 * the corefile, to preserve alignment with its headers; and also returns
 * NULL wherever the ZERO_PAGE, or an anonymous pte_none, has been found -
 * allowing a hole to be left in the corefile to save diskspace.
 *
 * Called without mmap_sem, but after all other threads have been killed.
 */
#ifdef CONFIG_ELF_CORE
struct page *get_dump_page(unsigned long addr)
{
	struct vm_area_struct *vma;
	struct page *page;

	if (__get_user_pages(current, current->mm, addr, 1,
			     FOLL_FORCE | FOLL_DUMP | FOLL_GET, &page, &vma,
			     NULL) < 1)
		return NULL;
	flush_cache_page(vma, addr, page_to_pfn(page));
	return page;
}
#endif /* CONFIG_ELF_CORE */
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/*
 * Generic RCU Fast GUP
 *
 * get_user_pages_fast attempts to pin user pages by walking the page
 * tables directly and avoids taking locks. Thus the walker needs to be
 * protected from page table pages being freed from under it, and should
 * block any THP splits.
 *
 * One way to achieve this is to have the walker disable interrupts, and
 * rely on IPIs from the TLB flushing code blocking before the page table
 * pages are freed. This is unsuitable for architectures that do not need
 * to broadcast an IPI when invalidating TLBs.
 *
 * Another way to achieve this is to batch up page table containing pages
 * belonging to more than one mm_user, then rcu_sched a callback to free those
 * pages. Disabling interrupts will allow the fast_gup walker to both block
 * the rcu_sched callback, and an IPI that we broadcast for splitting THPs
 * (which is a relatively rare event). The code below adopts this strategy.
 *
 * Before activating this code, please be aware that the following assumptions
 * are currently made:
 *
 *  *) HAVE_RCU_TABLE_FREE is enabled, and tlb_remove_table is used to free
 *      pages containing page tables.
 *
 *  *) ptes can be read atomically by the architecture.
 *
 *  *) access_ok is sufficient to validate userspace address ranges.
 *
 * The last two assumptions can be relaxed by the addition of helper functions.
 *
 * This code is based heavily on the PowerPC implementation by Nick Piggin.
 */
#ifdef CONFIG_HAVE_GENERIC_RCU_GUP

#ifdef __HAVE_ARCH_PTE_SPECIAL
static int gup_pte_range(pmd_t pmd, unsigned long addr, unsigned long end,
			 int write, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	pte_t *ptep, *ptem;
	int ret = 0;

	ptem = ptep = pte_offset_map(&pmd, addr);
	do {
		/*
		 * In the line below we are assuming that the pte can be read
		 * atomically. If this is not the case for your architecture,
		 * please wrap this in a helper function!
		 *
		 * for an example see gup_get_pte in arch/x86/mm/gup.c
		 */
1188
		pte_t pte = READ_ONCE(*ptep);
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		struct page *head, *page;
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		/*
		 * Similar to the PMD case below, NUMA hinting must take slow
1193
		 * path using the pte_protnone check.
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		 */
		if (!pte_present(pte) || pte_special(pte) ||
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			pte_protnone(pte) || (write && !pte_write(pte)))
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			goto pte_unmap;

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		if (!arch_pte_access_permitted(pte, write))
			goto pte_unmap;

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		VM_BUG_ON(!pfn_valid(pte_pfn(pte)));
		page = pte_page(pte);
1204
		head = compound_head(page);
1205

1206
		if (!page_cache_get_speculative(head))
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			goto pte_unmap;

		if (unlikely(pte_val(pte) != pte_val(*ptep))) {
1210
			put_page(head);
1211 1212 1213
			goto pte_unmap;
		}

1214
		VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(compound_head(page) != head, page);
1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230 1231 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246
		pages[*nr] = page;
		(*nr)++;

	} while (ptep++, addr += PAGE_SIZE, addr != end);

	ret = 1;

pte_unmap:
	pte_unmap(ptem);
	return ret;
}
#else

/*
 * If we can't determine whether or not a pte is special, then fail immediately
 * for ptes. Note, we can still pin HugeTLB and THP as these are guaranteed not
 * to be special.
 *
 * For a futex to be placed on a THP tail page, get_futex_key requires a
 * __get_user_pages_fast implementation that can pin pages. Thus it's still
 * useful to have gup_huge_pmd even if we can't operate on ptes.
 */
static int gup_pte_range(pmd_t pmd, unsigned long addr, unsigned long end,
			 int write, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	return 0;
}
#endif /* __HAVE_ARCH_PTE_SPECIAL */

static int gup_huge_pmd(pmd_t orig, pmd_t *pmdp, unsigned long addr,
		unsigned long end, int write, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
1247
	struct page *head, *page;
1248 1249 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269 1270 1271 1272 1273 1274 1275 1276 1277 1278 1279 1280 1281
	int refs;

	if (write && !pmd_write(orig))
		return 0;

	refs = 0;
	head = pmd_page(orig);
	page = head + ((addr & ~PMD_MASK) >> PAGE_SHIFT);
	do {
		VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(compound_head(page) != head, page);
		pages[*nr] = page;
		(*nr)++;
		page++;
		refs++;
	} while (addr += PAGE_SIZE, addr != end);

	if (!page_cache_add_speculative(head, refs)) {
		*nr -= refs;
		return 0;
	}

	if (unlikely(pmd_val(orig) != pmd_val(*pmdp))) {
		*nr -= refs;
		while (refs--)
			put_page(head);
		return 0;
	}

	return 1;
}

static int gup_huge_pud(pud_t orig, pud_t *pudp, unsigned long addr,
		unsigned long end, int write, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
1282
	struct page *head, *page;
1283 1284 1285 1286 1287 1288 1289 1290 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 1298 1299 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313
	int refs;

	if (write && !pud_write(orig))
		return 0;

	refs = 0;
	head = pud_page(orig);
	page = head + ((addr & ~PUD_MASK) >> PAGE_SHIFT);
	do {
		VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(compound_head(page) != head, page);
		pages[*nr] = page;
		(*nr)++;
		page++;
		refs++;
	} while (addr += PAGE_SIZE, addr != end);

	if (!page_cache_add_speculative(head, refs)) {
		*nr -= refs;
		return 0;
	}

	if (unlikely(pud_val(orig) != pud_val(*pudp))) {
		*nr -= refs;
		while (refs--)
			put_page(head);
		return 0;
	}

	return 1;
}

1314 1315 1316 1317 1318
static int gup_huge_pgd(pgd_t orig, pgd_t *pgdp, unsigned long addr,
			unsigned long end, int write,
			struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	int refs;
1319
	struct page *head, *page;
1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349

	if (write && !pgd_write(orig))
		return 0;

	refs = 0;
	head = pgd_page(orig);
	page = head + ((addr & ~PGDIR_MASK) >> PAGE_SHIFT);
	do {
		VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(compound_head(page) != head, page);
		pages[*nr] = page;
		(*nr)++;
		page++;
		refs++;
	} while (addr += PAGE_SIZE, addr != end);

	if (!page_cache_add_speculative(head, refs)) {
		*nr -= refs;
		return 0;
	}

	if (unlikely(pgd_val(orig) != pgd_val(*pgdp))) {
		*nr -= refs;
		while (refs--)
			put_page(head);
		return 0;
	}

	return 1;
}

1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1355 1356 1357
static int gup_pmd_range(pud_t pud, unsigned long addr, unsigned long end,
		int write, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	unsigned long next;
	pmd_t *pmdp;

	pmdp = pmd_offset(&pud, addr);
	do {
1358
		pmd_t pmd = READ_ONCE(*pmdp);
1359 1360

		next = pmd_addr_end(addr, end);
1361
		if (pmd_none(pmd))
1362 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369
			return 0;

		if (unlikely(pmd_trans_huge(pmd) || pmd_huge(pmd))) {
			/*
			 * NUMA hinting faults need to be handled in the GUP
			 * slowpath for accounting purposes and so that they
			 * can be serialised against THP migration.
			 */
1370
			if (pmd_protnone(pmd))
1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376
				return 0;

			if (!gup_huge_pmd(pmd, pmdp, addr, next, write,
				pages, nr))
				return 0;

1377 1378 1379 1380 1381 1382 1383 1384
		} else if (unlikely(is_hugepd(__hugepd(pmd_val(pmd))))) {
			/*
			 * architecture have different format for hugetlbfs
			 * pmd format and THP pmd format
			 */
			if (!gup_huge_pd(__hugepd(pmd_val(pmd)), addr,
					 PMD_SHIFT, next, write, pages, nr))
				return 0;
1385 1386 1387 1388 1389 1390 1391
		} else if (!gup_pte_range(pmd, addr, next, write, pages, nr))
				return 0;
	} while (pmdp++, addr = next, addr != end);

	return 1;
}

1392 1393
static int gup_pud_range(pgd_t pgd, unsigned long addr, unsigned long end,
			 int write, struct page **pages, int *nr)
1394 1395 1396 1397
{
	unsigned long next;
	pud_t *pudp;

1398
	pudp = pud_offset(&pgd, addr);
1399
	do {
1400
		pud_t pud = READ_ONCE(*pudp);
1401 1402 1403 1404

		next = pud_addr_end(addr, end);
		if (pud_none(pud))
			return 0;
1405
		if (unlikely(pud_huge(pud))) {
1406
			if (!gup_huge_pud(pud, pudp, addr, next, write,
1407