mmap.c 88.5 KB
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/*
 * mm/mmap.c
 *
 * Written by obz.
 *
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 * Address space accounting code	<alan@lxorguk.ukuu.org.uk>
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 */

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#define pr_fmt(fmt) KBUILD_MODNAME ": " fmt

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#include <linux/kernel.h>
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#include <linux/slab.h>
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#include <linux/backing-dev.h>
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#include <linux/mm.h>
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#include <linux/vmacache.h>
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#include <linux/shm.h>
#include <linux/mman.h>
#include <linux/pagemap.h>
#include <linux/swap.h>
#include <linux/syscalls.h>
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#include <linux/capability.h>
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#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/file.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
#include <linux/personality.h>
#include <linux/security.h>
#include <linux/hugetlb.h>
#include <linux/profile.h>
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#include <linux/export.h>
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#include <linux/mount.h>
#include <linux/mempolicy.h>
#include <linux/rmap.h>
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#include <linux/mmu_notifier.h>
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#include <linux/mmdebug.h>
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#include <linux/perf_event.h>
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#include <linux/audit.h>
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#include <linux/khugepaged.h>
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#include <linux/uprobes.h>
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#include <linux/rbtree_augmented.h>
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#include <linux/sched/sysctl.h>
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#include <linux/notifier.h>
#include <linux/memory.h>
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#include <linux/printk.h>
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#include <asm/uaccess.h>
#include <asm/cacheflush.h>
#include <asm/tlb.h>
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#include <asm/mmu_context.h>
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#include "internal.h"

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#ifndef arch_mmap_check
#define arch_mmap_check(addr, len, flags)	(0)
#endif

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#ifndef arch_rebalance_pgtables
#define arch_rebalance_pgtables(addr, len)		(addr)
#endif

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static void unmap_region(struct mm_struct *mm,
		struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct vm_area_struct *prev,
		unsigned long start, unsigned long end);

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/* description of effects of mapping type and prot in current implementation.
 * this is due to the limited x86 page protection hardware.  The expected
 * behavior is in parens:
 *
 * map_type	prot
 *		PROT_NONE	PROT_READ	PROT_WRITE	PROT_EXEC
 * MAP_SHARED	r: (no) no	r: (yes) yes	r: (no) yes	r: (no) yes
 *		w: (no) no	w: (no) no	w: (yes) yes	w: (no) no
 *		x: (no) no	x: (no) yes	x: (no) yes	x: (yes) yes
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 *
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 * MAP_PRIVATE	r: (no) no	r: (yes) yes	r: (no) yes	r: (no) yes
 *		w: (no) no	w: (no) no	w: (copy) copy	w: (no) no
 *		x: (no) no	x: (no) yes	x: (no) yes	x: (yes) yes
 *
 */
pgprot_t protection_map[16] = {
	__P000, __P001, __P010, __P011, __P100, __P101, __P110, __P111,
	__S000, __S001, __S010, __S011, __S100, __S101, __S110, __S111
};

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pgprot_t vm_get_page_prot(unsigned long vm_flags)
{
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	return __pgprot(pgprot_val(protection_map[vm_flags &
				(VM_READ|VM_WRITE|VM_EXEC|VM_SHARED)]) |
			pgprot_val(arch_vm_get_page_prot(vm_flags)));
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}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(vm_get_page_prot);

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static pgprot_t vm_pgprot_modify(pgprot_t oldprot, unsigned long vm_flags)
{
	return pgprot_modify(oldprot, vm_get_page_prot(vm_flags));
}

/* Update vma->vm_page_prot to reflect vma->vm_flags. */
void vma_set_page_prot(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
	unsigned long vm_flags = vma->vm_flags;

	vma->vm_page_prot = vm_pgprot_modify(vma->vm_page_prot, vm_flags);
	if (vma_wants_writenotify(vma)) {
		vm_flags &= ~VM_SHARED;
		vma->vm_page_prot = vm_pgprot_modify(vma->vm_page_prot,
						     vm_flags);
	}
}


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int sysctl_overcommit_memory __read_mostly = OVERCOMMIT_GUESS;  /* heuristic overcommit */
int sysctl_overcommit_ratio __read_mostly = 50;	/* default is 50% */
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unsigned long sysctl_overcommit_kbytes __read_mostly;
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int sysctl_max_map_count __read_mostly = DEFAULT_MAX_MAP_COUNT;
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unsigned long sysctl_user_reserve_kbytes __read_mostly = 1UL << 17; /* 128MB */
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unsigned long sysctl_admin_reserve_kbytes __read_mostly = 1UL << 13; /* 8MB */
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/*
 * Make sure vm_committed_as in one cacheline and not cacheline shared with
 * other variables. It can be updated by several CPUs frequently.
 */
struct percpu_counter vm_committed_as ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp;
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/*
 * The global memory commitment made in the system can be a metric
 * that can be used to drive ballooning decisions when Linux is hosted
 * as a guest. On Hyper-V, the host implements a policy engine for dynamically
 * balancing memory across competing virtual machines that are hosted.
 * Several metrics drive this policy engine including the guest reported
 * memory commitment.
 */
unsigned long vm_memory_committed(void)
{
	return percpu_counter_read_positive(&vm_committed_as);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(vm_memory_committed);

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/*
 * Check that a process has enough memory to allocate a new virtual
 * mapping. 0 means there is enough memory for the allocation to
 * succeed and -ENOMEM implies there is not.
 *
 * We currently support three overcommit policies, which are set via the
 * vm.overcommit_memory sysctl.  See Documentation/vm/overcommit-accounting
 *
 * Strict overcommit modes added 2002 Feb 26 by Alan Cox.
 * Additional code 2002 Jul 20 by Robert Love.
 *
 * cap_sys_admin is 1 if the process has admin privileges, 0 otherwise.
 *
 * Note this is a helper function intended to be used by LSMs which
 * wish to use this logic.
 */
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int __vm_enough_memory(struct mm_struct *mm, long pages, int cap_sys_admin)
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{
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	unsigned long free, allowed, reserve;
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	VM_WARN_ONCE(percpu_counter_read(&vm_committed_as) <
			-(s64)vm_committed_as_batch * num_online_cpus(),
			"memory commitment underflow");

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	vm_acct_memory(pages);

	/*
	 * Sometimes we want to use more memory than we have
	 */
	if (sysctl_overcommit_memory == OVERCOMMIT_ALWAYS)
		return 0;

	if (sysctl_overcommit_memory == OVERCOMMIT_GUESS) {
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		free = global_page_state(NR_FREE_PAGES);
		free += global_page_state(NR_FILE_PAGES);

		/*
		 * shmem pages shouldn't be counted as free in this
		 * case, they can't be purged, only swapped out, and
		 * that won't affect the overall amount of available
		 * memory in the system.
		 */
		free -= global_page_state(NR_SHMEM);
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		free += get_nr_swap_pages();
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		/*
		 * Any slabs which are created with the
		 * SLAB_RECLAIM_ACCOUNT flag claim to have contents
		 * which are reclaimable, under pressure.  The dentry
		 * cache and most inode caches should fall into this
		 */
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		free += global_page_state(NR_SLAB_RECLAIMABLE);
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		/*
		 * Leave reserved pages. The pages are not for anonymous pages.
		 */
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		if (free <= totalreserve_pages)
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			goto error;
		else
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			free -= totalreserve_pages;
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		/*
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		 * Reserve some for root
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		 */
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		if (!cap_sys_admin)
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			free -= sysctl_admin_reserve_kbytes >> (PAGE_SHIFT - 10);
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		if (free > pages)
			return 0;
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		goto error;
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	}

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	allowed = vm_commit_limit();
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	/*
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	 * Reserve some for root
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	 */
	if (!cap_sys_admin)
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		allowed -= sysctl_admin_reserve_kbytes >> (PAGE_SHIFT - 10);
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	/*
	 * Don't let a single process grow so big a user can't recover
	 */
	if (mm) {
		reserve = sysctl_user_reserve_kbytes >> (PAGE_SHIFT - 10);
		allowed -= min(mm->total_vm / 32, reserve);
	}
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	if (percpu_counter_read_positive(&vm_committed_as) < allowed)
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		return 0;
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error:
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	vm_unacct_memory(pages);

	return -ENOMEM;
}

/*
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 * Requires inode->i_mapping->i_mmap_mutex
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 */
static void __remove_shared_vm_struct(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
		struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping)
{
	if (vma->vm_flags & VM_DENYWRITE)
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		atomic_inc(&file_inode(file)->i_writecount);
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	if (vma->vm_flags & VM_SHARED)
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		mapping_unmap_writable(mapping);
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	flush_dcache_mmap_lock(mapping);
	if (unlikely(vma->vm_flags & VM_NONLINEAR))
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		list_del_init(&vma->shared.nonlinear);
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	else
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		vma_interval_tree_remove(vma, &mapping->i_mmap);
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	flush_dcache_mmap_unlock(mapping);
}

/*
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 * Unlink a file-based vm structure from its interval tree, to hide
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 * vma from rmap and vmtruncate before freeing its page tables.
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 */
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void unlink_file_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
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{
	struct file *file = vma->vm_file;

	if (file) {
		struct address_space *mapping = file->f_mapping;
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		mutex_lock(&mapping->i_mmap_mutex);
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		__remove_shared_vm_struct(vma, file, mapping);
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		mutex_unlock(&mapping->i_mmap_mutex);
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	}
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}

/*
 * Close a vm structure and free it, returning the next.
 */
static struct vm_area_struct *remove_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
	struct vm_area_struct *next = vma->vm_next;

	might_sleep();
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	if (vma->vm_ops && vma->vm_ops->close)
		vma->vm_ops->close(vma);
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	if (vma->vm_file)
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		fput(vma->vm_file);
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	mpol_put(vma_policy(vma));
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	kmem_cache_free(vm_area_cachep, vma);
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	return next;
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}

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static unsigned long do_brk(unsigned long addr, unsigned long len);

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SYSCALL_DEFINE1(brk, unsigned long, brk)
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{
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	unsigned long retval;
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	unsigned long newbrk, oldbrk;
	struct mm_struct *mm = current->mm;
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	unsigned long min_brk;
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	bool populate;
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	down_write(&mm->mmap_sem);

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#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT_BRK
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	/*
	 * CONFIG_COMPAT_BRK can still be overridden by setting
	 * randomize_va_space to 2, which will still cause mm->start_brk
	 * to be arbitrarily shifted
	 */
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	if (current->brk_randomized)
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		min_brk = mm->start_brk;
	else
		min_brk = mm->end_data;
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#else
	min_brk = mm->start_brk;
#endif
	if (brk < min_brk)
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		goto out;
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	/*
	 * Check against rlimit here. If this check is done later after the test
	 * of oldbrk with newbrk then it can escape the test and let the data
	 * segment grow beyond its set limit the in case where the limit is
	 * not page aligned -Ram Gupta
	 */
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	if (check_data_rlimit(rlimit(RLIMIT_DATA), brk, mm->start_brk,
			      mm->end_data, mm->start_data))
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		goto out;

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	newbrk = PAGE_ALIGN(brk);
	oldbrk = PAGE_ALIGN(mm->brk);
	if (oldbrk == newbrk)
		goto set_brk;

	/* Always allow shrinking brk. */
	if (brk <= mm->brk) {
		if (!do_munmap(mm, newbrk, oldbrk-newbrk))
			goto set_brk;
		goto out;
	}

	/* Check against existing mmap mappings. */
	if (find_vma_intersection(mm, oldbrk, newbrk+PAGE_SIZE))
		goto out;

	/* Ok, looks good - let it rip. */
	if (do_brk(oldbrk, newbrk-oldbrk) != oldbrk)
		goto out;
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set_brk:
	mm->brk = brk;
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	populate = newbrk > oldbrk && (mm->def_flags & VM_LOCKED) != 0;
	up_write(&mm->mmap_sem);
	if (populate)
		mm_populate(oldbrk, newbrk - oldbrk);
	return brk;

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out:
	retval = mm->brk;
	up_write(&mm->mmap_sem);
	return retval;
}

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static long vma_compute_subtree_gap(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
	unsigned long max, subtree_gap;
	max = vma->vm_start;
	if (vma->vm_prev)
		max -= vma->vm_prev->vm_end;
	if (vma->vm_rb.rb_left) {
		subtree_gap = rb_entry(vma->vm_rb.rb_left,
				struct vm_area_struct, vm_rb)->rb_subtree_gap;
		if (subtree_gap > max)
			max = subtree_gap;
	}
	if (vma->vm_rb.rb_right) {
		subtree_gap = rb_entry(vma->vm_rb.rb_right,
				struct vm_area_struct, vm_rb)->rb_subtree_gap;
		if (subtree_gap > max)
			max = subtree_gap;
	}
	return max;
}

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#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_VM_RB
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static int browse_rb(struct rb_root *root)
{
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	int i = 0, j, bug = 0;
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	struct rb_node *nd, *pn = NULL;
	unsigned long prev = 0, pend = 0;

	for (nd = rb_first(root); nd; nd = rb_next(nd)) {
		struct vm_area_struct *vma;
		vma = rb_entry(nd, struct vm_area_struct, vm_rb);
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		if (vma->vm_start < prev) {
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			pr_emerg("vm_start %lx < prev %lx\n",
				  vma->vm_start, prev);
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			bug = 1;
		}
		if (vma->vm_start < pend) {
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			pr_emerg("vm_start %lx < pend %lx\n",
				  vma->vm_start, pend);
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			bug = 1;
		}
		if (vma->vm_start > vma->vm_end) {
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			pr_emerg("vm_start %lx > vm_end %lx\n",
				  vma->vm_start, vma->vm_end);
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			bug = 1;
		}
		if (vma->rb_subtree_gap != vma_compute_subtree_gap(vma)) {
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			pr_emerg("free gap %lx, correct %lx\n",
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			       vma->rb_subtree_gap,
			       vma_compute_subtree_gap(vma));
			bug = 1;
		}
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		i++;
		pn = nd;
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		prev = vma->vm_start;
		pend = vma->vm_end;
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	}
	j = 0;
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	for (nd = pn; nd; nd = rb_prev(nd))
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		j++;
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	if (i != j) {
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		pr_emerg("backwards %d, forwards %d\n", j, i);
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		bug = 1;
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	}
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	return bug ? -1 : i;
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}

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static void validate_mm_rb(struct rb_root *root, struct vm_area_struct *ignore)
{
	struct rb_node *nd;

	for (nd = rb_first(root); nd; nd = rb_next(nd)) {
		struct vm_area_struct *vma;
		vma = rb_entry(nd, struct vm_area_struct, vm_rb);
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		VM_BUG_ON_VMA(vma != ignore &&
			vma->rb_subtree_gap != vma_compute_subtree_gap(vma),
			vma);
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	}
}

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static void validate_mm(struct mm_struct *mm)
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{
	int bug = 0;
	int i = 0;
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	unsigned long highest_address = 0;
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	struct vm_area_struct *vma = mm->mmap;
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	while (vma) {
		struct anon_vma_chain *avc;
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		vma_lock_anon_vma(vma);
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		list_for_each_entry(avc, &vma->anon_vma_chain, same_vma)
			anon_vma_interval_tree_verify(avc);
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		vma_unlock_anon_vma(vma);
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		highest_address = vma->vm_end;
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		vma = vma->vm_next;
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		i++;
	}
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	if (i != mm->map_count) {
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		pr_emerg("map_count %d vm_next %d\n", mm->map_count, i);
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		bug = 1;
	}
	if (highest_address != mm->highest_vm_end) {
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		pr_emerg("mm->highest_vm_end %lx, found %lx\n",
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			  mm->highest_vm_end, highest_address);
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		bug = 1;
	}
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	i = browse_rb(&mm->mm_rb);
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	if (i != mm->map_count) {
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		if (i != -1)
			pr_emerg("map_count %d rb %d\n", mm->map_count, i);
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		bug = 1;
	}
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	VM_BUG_ON_MM(bug, mm);
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}
#else
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#define validate_mm_rb(root, ignore) do { } while (0)
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#define validate_mm(mm) do { } while (0)
#endif

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RB_DECLARE_CALLBACKS(static, vma_gap_callbacks, struct vm_area_struct, vm_rb,
		     unsigned long, rb_subtree_gap, vma_compute_subtree_gap)

/*
 * Update augmented rbtree rb_subtree_gap values after vma->vm_start or
 * vma->vm_prev->vm_end values changed, without modifying the vma's position
 * in the rbtree.
 */
static void vma_gap_update(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
	/*
	 * As it turns out, RB_DECLARE_CALLBACKS() already created a callback
	 * function that does exacltly what we want.
	 */
	vma_gap_callbacks_propagate(&vma->vm_rb, NULL);
}

static inline void vma_rb_insert(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
				 struct rb_root *root)
{
	/* All rb_subtree_gap values must be consistent prior to insertion */
	validate_mm_rb(root, NULL);

	rb_insert_augmented(&vma->vm_rb, root, &vma_gap_callbacks);
}

static void vma_rb_erase(struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct rb_root *root)
{
	/*
	 * All rb_subtree_gap values must be consistent prior to erase,
	 * with the possible exception of the vma being erased.
	 */
	validate_mm_rb(root, vma);

	/*
	 * Note rb_erase_augmented is a fairly large inline function,
	 * so make sure we instantiate it only once with our desired
	 * augmented rbtree callbacks.
	 */
	rb_erase_augmented(&vma->vm_rb, root, &vma_gap_callbacks);
}

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/*
 * vma has some anon_vma assigned, and is already inserted on that
 * anon_vma's interval trees.
 *
 * Before updating the vma's vm_start / vm_end / vm_pgoff fields, the
 * vma must be removed from the anon_vma's interval trees using
 * anon_vma_interval_tree_pre_update_vma().
 *
 * After the update, the vma will be reinserted using
 * anon_vma_interval_tree_post_update_vma().
 *
 * The entire update must be protected by exclusive mmap_sem and by
 * the root anon_vma's mutex.
 */
static inline void
anon_vma_interval_tree_pre_update_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
	struct anon_vma_chain *avc;

	list_for_each_entry(avc, &vma->anon_vma_chain, same_vma)
		anon_vma_interval_tree_remove(avc, &avc->anon_vma->rb_root);
}

static inline void
anon_vma_interval_tree_post_update_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
	struct anon_vma_chain *avc;

	list_for_each_entry(avc, &vma->anon_vma_chain, same_vma)
		anon_vma_interval_tree_insert(avc, &avc->anon_vma->rb_root);
}

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static int find_vma_links(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long addr,
		unsigned long end, struct vm_area_struct **pprev,
		struct rb_node ***rb_link, struct rb_node **rb_parent)
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{
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	struct rb_node **__rb_link, *__rb_parent, *rb_prev;
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	__rb_link = &mm->mm_rb.rb_node;
	rb_prev = __rb_parent = NULL;

	while (*__rb_link) {
		struct vm_area_struct *vma_tmp;

		__rb_parent = *__rb_link;
		vma_tmp = rb_entry(__rb_parent, struct vm_area_struct, vm_rb);

		if (vma_tmp->vm_end > addr) {
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			/* Fail if an existing vma overlaps the area */
			if (vma_tmp->vm_start < end)
				return -ENOMEM;
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			__rb_link = &__rb_parent->rb_left;
		} else {
			rb_prev = __rb_parent;
			__rb_link = &__rb_parent->rb_right;
		}
	}

	*pprev = NULL;
	if (rb_prev)
		*pprev = rb_entry(rb_prev, struct vm_area_struct, vm_rb);
	*rb_link = __rb_link;
	*rb_parent = __rb_parent;
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	return 0;
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}

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static unsigned long count_vma_pages_range(struct mm_struct *mm,
		unsigned long addr, unsigned long end)
{
	unsigned long nr_pages = 0;
	struct vm_area_struct *vma;

	/* Find first overlaping mapping */
	vma = find_vma_intersection(mm, addr, end);
	if (!vma)
		return 0;

	nr_pages = (min(end, vma->vm_end) -
		max(addr, vma->vm_start)) >> PAGE_SHIFT;

	/* Iterate over the rest of the overlaps */
	for (vma = vma->vm_next; vma; vma = vma->vm_next) {
		unsigned long overlap_len;

		if (vma->vm_start > end)
			break;

		overlap_len = min(end, vma->vm_end) - vma->vm_start;
		nr_pages += overlap_len >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	}

	return nr_pages;
}

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void __vma_link_rb(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
		struct rb_node **rb_link, struct rb_node *rb_parent)
{
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	/* Update tracking information for the gap following the new vma. */
	if (vma->vm_next)
		vma_gap_update(vma->vm_next);
	else
		mm->highest_vm_end = vma->vm_end;

	/*
	 * vma->vm_prev wasn't known when we followed the rbtree to find the
	 * correct insertion point for that vma. As a result, we could not
	 * update the vma vm_rb parents rb_subtree_gap values on the way down.
	 * So, we first insert the vma with a zero rb_subtree_gap value
	 * (to be consistent with what we did on the way down), and then
	 * immediately update the gap to the correct value. Finally we
	 * rebalance the rbtree after all augmented values have been set.
	 */
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	rb_link_node(&vma->vm_rb, rb_parent, rb_link);
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	vma->rb_subtree_gap = 0;
	vma_gap_update(vma);
	vma_rb_insert(vma, &mm->mm_rb);
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}

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static void __vma_link_file(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
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{
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	struct file *file;
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	file = vma->vm_file;
	if (file) {
		struct address_space *mapping = file->f_mapping;

		if (vma->vm_flags & VM_DENYWRITE)
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			atomic_dec(&file_inode(file)->i_writecount);
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		if (vma->vm_flags & VM_SHARED)
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			atomic_inc(&mapping->i_mmap_writable);
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		flush_dcache_mmap_lock(mapping);
		if (unlikely(vma->vm_flags & VM_NONLINEAR))
			vma_nonlinear_insert(vma, &mapping->i_mmap_nonlinear);
		else
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			vma_interval_tree_insert(vma, &mapping->i_mmap);
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		flush_dcache_mmap_unlock(mapping);
	}
}

static void
__vma_link(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
	struct vm_area_struct *prev, struct rb_node **rb_link,
	struct rb_node *rb_parent)
{
	__vma_link_list(mm, vma, prev, rb_parent);
	__vma_link_rb(mm, vma, rb_link, rb_parent);
}

static void vma_link(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
			struct vm_area_struct *prev, struct rb_node **rb_link,
			struct rb_node *rb_parent)
{
	struct address_space *mapping = NULL;

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	if (vma->vm_file) {
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		mapping = vma->vm_file->f_mapping;
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		mutex_lock(&mapping->i_mmap_mutex);
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	}
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	__vma_link(mm, vma, prev, rb_link, rb_parent);
	__vma_link_file(vma);

	if (mapping)
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		mutex_unlock(&mapping->i_mmap_mutex);
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	mm->map_count++;
	validate_mm(mm);
}

/*
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 * Helper for vma_adjust() in the split_vma insert case: insert a vma into the
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 * mm's list and rbtree.  It has already been inserted into the interval tree.
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 */
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static void __insert_vm_struct(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma)
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{
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	struct vm_area_struct *prev;
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	struct rb_node **rb_link, *rb_parent;
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	if (find_vma_links(mm, vma->vm_start, vma->vm_end,
			   &prev, &rb_link, &rb_parent))
		BUG();
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	__vma_link(mm, vma, prev, rb_link, rb_parent);
	mm->map_count++;
}

static inline void
__vma_unlink(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
		struct vm_area_struct *prev)
{
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	struct vm_area_struct *next;
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	vma_rb_erase(vma, &mm->mm_rb);
	prev->vm_next = next = vma->vm_next;
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	if (next)
		next->vm_prev = prev;
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	/* Kill the cache */
	vmacache_invalidate(mm);
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}

/*
 * We cannot adjust vm_start, vm_end, vm_pgoff fields of a vma that
 * is already present in an i_mmap tree without adjusting the tree.
 * The following helper function should be used when such adjustments
 * are necessary.  The "insert" vma (if any) is to be inserted
 * before we drop the necessary locks.
 */
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int vma_adjust(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long start,
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	unsigned long end, pgoff_t pgoff, struct vm_area_struct *insert)
{
	struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
	struct vm_area_struct *next = vma->vm_next;
	struct vm_area_struct *importer = NULL;
	struct address_space *mapping = NULL;
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	struct rb_root *root = NULL;
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	struct anon_vma *anon_vma = NULL;
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	struct file *file = vma->vm_file;
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	bool start_changed = false, end_changed = false;
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	long adjust_next = 0;
	int remove_next = 0;

	if (next && !insert) {
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		struct vm_area_struct *exporter = NULL;

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		if (end >= next->vm_end) {
			/*
			 * vma expands, overlapping all the next, and
			 * perhaps the one after too (mprotect case 6).
			 */
again:			remove_next = 1 + (end > next->vm_end);
			end = next->vm_end;
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			exporter = next;
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			importer = vma;
		} else if (end > next->vm_start) {
			/*
			 * vma expands, overlapping part of the next:
			 * mprotect case 5 shifting the boundary up.
			 */
			adjust_next = (end - next->vm_start) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
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			exporter = next;
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			importer = vma;
		} else if (end < vma->vm_end) {
			/*
			 * vma shrinks, and !insert tells it's not
			 * split_vma inserting another: so it must be
			 * mprotect case 4 shifting the boundary down.
			 */
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			adjust_next = -((vma->vm_end - end) >> PAGE_SHIFT);
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			exporter = vma;
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			importer = next;
		}

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		/*
		 * Easily overlooked: when mprotect shifts the boundary,
		 * make sure the expanding vma has anon_vma set if the
		 * shrinking vma had, to cover any anon pages imported.
		 */
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		if (exporter && exporter->anon_vma && !importer->anon_vma) {
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			int error;

			error = anon_vma_clone(importer, exporter);
			if (error)
				return error;
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			importer->anon_vma = exporter->anon_vma;
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		}
	}

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	if (file) {
		mapping = file->f_mapping;
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		if (!(vma->vm_flags & VM_NONLINEAR)) {
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			root = &mapping->i_mmap;
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			uprobe_munmap(vma, vma->vm_start, vma->vm_end);
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			if (adjust_next)
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				uprobe_munmap(next, next->vm_start,
							next->vm_end);
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		}

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		mutex_lock(&mapping->i_mmap_mutex);
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		if (insert) {
			/*
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			 * Put into interval tree now, so instantiated pages
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			 * are visible to arm/parisc __flush_dcache_page
			 * throughout; but we cannot insert into address
			 * space until vma start or end is updated.
			 */
			__vma_link_file(insert);
		}
	}

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	vma_adjust_trans_huge(vma, start, end, adjust_next);

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	anon_vma = vma->anon_vma;
	if (!anon_vma && adjust_next)
		anon_vma = next->anon_vma;
	if (anon_vma) {
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		VM_BUG_ON_VMA(adjust_next && next->anon_vma &&
			  anon_vma != next->anon_vma, next);
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		anon_vma_lock_write(anon_vma);
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		anon_vma_interval_tree_pre_update_vma(vma);
		if (adjust_next)
			anon_vma_interval_tree_pre_update_vma(next);
	}
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	if (root) {
		flush_dcache_mmap_lock(mapping);
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		vma_interval_tree_remove(vma, root);
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		if (adjust_next)
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			vma_interval_tree_remove(next, root);
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	}

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	if (start != vma->vm_start) {
		vma->vm_start = start;
		start_changed = true;
	}
	if (end != vma->vm_end) {
		vma->vm_end = end;
		end_changed = true;
	}
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	vma->vm_pgoff = pgoff;
	if (adjust_next) {
		next->vm_start += adjust_next << PAGE_SHIFT;
		next->vm_pgoff += adjust_next;
	}

	if (root) {
		if (adjust_next)
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			vma_interval_tree_insert(next, root);
		vma_interval_tree_insert(vma, root);
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		flush_dcache_mmap_unlock(mapping);
	}

	if (remove_next) {
		/*
		 * vma_merge has merged next into vma, and needs
		 * us to remove next before dropping the locks.
		 */
		__vma_unlink(mm, next, vma);
		if (file)
			__remove_shared_vm_struct(next, file, mapping);
	} else if (insert) {
		/*
		 * split_vma has split insert from vma, and needs
		 * us to insert it before dropping the locks
		 * (it may either follow vma or precede it).
		 */
		__insert_vm_struct(mm, insert);
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	} else {
		if (start_changed)
			vma_gap_update(vma);
		if (end_changed) {
			if (!next)
				mm->highest_vm_end = end;
			else if (!adjust_next)
				vma_gap_update(next);
		}
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	}

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	if (anon_vma) {
		anon_vma_interval_tree_post_update_vma(vma);
		if (adjust_next)
			anon_vma_interval_tree_post_update_vma(next);
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		anon_vma_unlock_write(anon_vma);
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	}
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	if (mapping)
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		mutex_unlock(&mapping->i_mmap_mutex);
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	if (root) {
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		uprobe_mmap(vma);
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		if (adjust_next)
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			uprobe_mmap(next);
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	}

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	if (remove_next) {
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		if (file) {
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			uprobe_munmap(next, next->vm_start, next->vm_end);
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			fput(file);
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		}
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		if (next->anon_vma)
			anon_vma_merge(vma, next);
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		mm->map_count--;
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		mpol_put(vma_policy(next));
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		kmem_cache_free(vm_area_cachep, next);
		/*
		 * In mprotect's case 6 (see comments on vma_merge),
		 * we must remove another next too. It would clutter
		 * up the code too much to do both in one go.
		 */
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		next = vma->vm_next;
		if (remove_next == 2)
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			goto again;
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		else if (next)
			vma_gap_update(next);
		else
			mm->highest_vm_end = end;
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	}
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	if (insert && file)
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		uprobe_mmap(insert);
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	validate_mm(mm);
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	return 0;
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}

/*
 * If the vma has a ->close operation then the driver probably needs to release
 * per-vma resources, so we don't attempt to merge those.
 */
static inline int is_mergeable_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
			struct file *file, unsigned long vm_flags)
{
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	/*
	 * VM_SOFTDIRTY should not prevent from VMA merging, if we
	 * match the flags but dirty bit -- the caller should mark
	 * merged VMA as dirty. If dirty bit won't be excluded from
	 * comparison, we increase pressue on the memory system forcing
	 * the kernel to generate new VMAs when old one could be
	 * extended instead.
	 */
	if ((vma->vm_flags ^ vm_flags) & ~VM_SOFTDIRTY)
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		return 0;
	if (vma->vm_file != file)
		return 0;
	if (vma->vm_ops && vma->vm_ops->close)
		return 0;
	return 1;
}

static inline int is_mergeable_anon_vma(struct anon_vma *anon_vma1,
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					struct anon_vma *anon_vma2,
					struct vm_area_struct *vma)
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{
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	/*
	 * The list_is_singular() test is to avoid merging VMA cloned from
	 * parents. This can improve scalability caused by anon_vma lock.
	 */
	if ((!anon_vma1 || !anon_vma2) && (!vma ||
		list_is_singular(&vma->anon_vma_chain)))
		return 1;
	return anon_vma1 == anon_vma2;
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}

/*
 * Return true if we can merge this (vm_flags,anon_vma,file,vm_pgoff)
 * in front of (at a lower virtual address and file offset than) the vma.
 *
 * We cannot merge two vmas if they have differently assigned (non-NULL)
 * anon_vmas, nor if same anon_vma is assigned but offsets incompatible.
 *
 * We don't check here for the merged mmap wrapping around the end of pagecache
 * indices (16TB on ia32) because do_mmap_pgoff() does not permit mmap's which
 * wrap, nor mmaps which cover the final page at index -1UL.
 */
static int
can_vma_merge_before(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long vm_flags,
	struct anon_vma *anon_vma, struct file *file, pgoff_t vm_pgoff)
{
	if (is_mergeable_vma(vma, file, vm_flags) &&
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	    is_mergeable_anon_vma(anon_vma, vma->anon_vma, vma)) {
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		if (vma->vm_pgoff == vm_pgoff)
			return 1;
	}
	return 0;
}

/*
 * Return true if we can merge this (vm_flags,anon_vma,file,vm_pgoff)
 * beyond (at a higher virtual address and file offset than) the vma.
 *
 * We cannot merge two vmas if they have differently assigned (non-NULL)
 * anon_vmas, nor if same anon_vma is assigned but offsets incompatible.
 */
static int
can_vma_merge_after(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long vm_flags,
	struct anon_vma *anon_vma, struct file *file, pgoff_t vm_pgoff)
{
	if (is_mergeable_vma(vma, file, vm_flags) &&
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	    is_mergeable_anon_vma(anon_vma, vma->anon_vma, vma)) {
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		pgoff_t vm_pglen;
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		vm_pglen = vma_pages(vma);
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		if (vma->vm_pgoff + vm_pglen == vm_pgoff)
			return 1;
	}
	return 0;
}

/*
 * Given a mapping request (addr,end,vm_flags,file,pgoff), figure out
 * whether that can be merged with its predecessor or its successor.
 * Or both (it neatly fills a hole).
 *
 * In most cases - when called for mmap, brk or mremap - [addr,end) is
 * certain not to be mapped by the time vma_merge is called; but when
 * called for mprotect, it is certain to be already mapped (either at
 * an offset within prev, or at the start of next), and the flags of
 * this area are about to be changed to vm_flags - and the no-change
 * case has already been eliminated.
 *
 * The following mprotect cases have to be considered, where AAAA is
 * the area passed down from mprotect_fixup, never extending beyond one
 * vma, PPPPPP is the prev vma specified, and NNNNNN the next vma after:
 *
 *     AAAA             AAAA                AAAA          AAAA
 *    PPPPPPNNNNNN    PPPPPPNNNNNN    PPPPPPNNNNNN    PPPPNNNNXXXX
 *    cannot merge    might become    might become    might become
 *                    PPNNNNNNNNNN    PPPPPPPPPPNN    PPPPPPPPPPPP 6 or
 *    mmap, brk or    case 4 below    case 5 below    PPPPPPPPXXXX 7 or
 *    mremap move:                                    PPPPNNNNNNNN 8
 *        AAAA
 *    PPPP    NNNN    PPPPPPPPPPPP    PPPPPPPPNNNN    PPPPNNNNNNNN
 *    might become    case 1 below    case 2 below    case 3 below
 *
 * Odd one out? Case 8, because it extends NNNN but needs flags of XXXX:
 * mprotect_fixup updates vm_flags & vm_page_prot on successful return.
 */
struct vm_area_struct *vma_merge(struct mm_struct *mm,
			struct vm_area_struct *prev, unsigned long addr,
			unsigned long end, unsigned long vm_flags,
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			struct anon_vma *anon_vma, struct file *file,
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			pgoff_t pgoff, struct mempolicy *policy)
{
	pgoff_t pglen = (end - addr) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	struct vm_area_struct *area, *next;
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	int err;
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	/*
	 * We later require that vma->vm_flags == vm_flags,
	 * so this tests vma->vm_flags & VM_SPECIAL, too.
	 */
	if (vm_flags & VM_SPECIAL)
		return NULL;

	if (prev)
		next = prev->vm_next;
	else
		next = mm->mmap;
	area = next;
	if (next && next->vm_end == end)		/* cases 6, 7, 8 */
		next = next->vm_next;

	/*
	 * Can it merge with the predecessor?
	 */
	if (prev && prev->vm_end == addr &&
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			mpol_equal(vma_policy(prev), policy) &&
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			can_vma_merge_after(prev, vm_flags,
						anon_vma, file, pgoff)) {
		/*
		 * OK, it can.  Can we now merge in the successor as well?
		 */
		if (next && end == next->vm_start &&
				mpol_equal(policy, vma_policy(next)) &&
				can_vma_merge_before(next, vm_flags,
					anon_vma, file, pgoff+pglen) &&
				is_mergeable_anon_vma(prev->anon_vma,
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						      next->anon_vma, NULL)) {
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							/* cases 1, 6 */
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			err = vma_adjust(prev, prev->vm_start,
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				next->vm_end, prev->vm_pgoff, NULL);
		} else					/* cases 2, 5, 7 */
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			err = vma_adjust(prev, prev->vm_start,
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				end, prev->vm_pgoff, NULL);
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		if (err)
			return NULL;
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		khugepaged_enter_vma_merge(prev, vm_flags);
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		return prev;
	}

	/*
	 * Can this new request be merged in front of next?
	 */
	if (next && end == next->vm_start &&
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			mpol_equal(policy, vma_policy(next)) &&
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			can_vma_merge_before(next, vm_flags,
					anon_vma, file, pgoff+pglen)) {
		if (prev && addr < prev->vm_end)	/* case 4 */
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			err = vma_adjust(prev, prev->vm_start,
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				addr, prev->vm_pgoff, NULL);
		else					/* cases 3, 8 */
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			err = vma_adjust(area, addr, next->vm_end,
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				next->vm_pgoff - pglen, NULL);
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		if (err)
			return NULL;
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		khugepaged_enter_vma_merge(area, vm_flags);
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		return area;
	}

	return NULL;
}

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/*
 * Rough compatbility check to quickly see if it's even worth looking
 * at sharing an anon_vma.
 *
 * They need to have the same vm_file, and the flags can only differ
 * in things that mprotect may change.
 *
 * NOTE! The fact that we share an anon_vma doesn't _have_ to mean that
 * we can merge the two vma's. For example, we refuse to merge a vma if
 * there is a vm_ops->close() function, because that indicates that the
 * driver is doing some kind of reference counting. But that doesn't
 * really matter for the anon_vma sharing case.
 */
static int anon_vma_compatible(struct vm_area_struct *a, struct vm_area_struct *b)
{
	return a->vm_end == b->vm_start &&
		mpol_equal(vma_policy(a), vma_policy(b)) &&
		a->vm_file == b->vm_file &&
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		!((a->vm_flags ^ b->vm_flags) & ~(VM_READ|VM_WRITE|VM_EXEC|VM_SOFTDIRTY)) &&
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