mmap.c 69.4 KB
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/*
 * mm/mmap.c
 *
 * Written by obz.
 *
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 * Address space accounting code	<alan@lxorguk.ukuu.org.uk>
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 */

#include <linux/slab.h>
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#include <linux/backing-dev.h>
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#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/shm.h>
#include <linux/mman.h>
#include <linux/pagemap.h>
#include <linux/swap.h>
#include <linux/syscalls.h>
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#include <linux/capability.h>
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#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/file.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
#include <linux/personality.h>
#include <linux/security.h>
#include <linux/hugetlb.h>
#include <linux/profile.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/mount.h>
#include <linux/mempolicy.h>
#include <linux/rmap.h>
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#include <linux/mmu_notifier.h>
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#include <linux/perf_event.h>
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#include <asm/uaccess.h>
#include <asm/cacheflush.h>
#include <asm/tlb.h>
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#include <asm/mmu_context.h>
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#include "internal.h"

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#ifndef arch_mmap_check
#define arch_mmap_check(addr, len, flags)	(0)
#endif

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#ifndef arch_rebalance_pgtables
#define arch_rebalance_pgtables(addr, len)		(addr)
#endif

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static void unmap_region(struct mm_struct *mm,
		struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct vm_area_struct *prev,
		unsigned long start, unsigned long end);

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/*
 * WARNING: the debugging will use recursive algorithms so never enable this
 * unless you know what you are doing.
 */
#undef DEBUG_MM_RB

/* description of effects of mapping type and prot in current implementation.
 * this is due to the limited x86 page protection hardware.  The expected
 * behavior is in parens:
 *
 * map_type	prot
 *		PROT_NONE	PROT_READ	PROT_WRITE	PROT_EXEC
 * MAP_SHARED	r: (no) no	r: (yes) yes	r: (no) yes	r: (no) yes
 *		w: (no) no	w: (no) no	w: (yes) yes	w: (no) no
 *		x: (no) no	x: (no) yes	x: (no) yes	x: (yes) yes
 *		
 * MAP_PRIVATE	r: (no) no	r: (yes) yes	r: (no) yes	r: (no) yes
 *		w: (no) no	w: (no) no	w: (copy) copy	w: (no) no
 *		x: (no) no	x: (no) yes	x: (no) yes	x: (yes) yes
 *
 */
pgprot_t protection_map[16] = {
	__P000, __P001, __P010, __P011, __P100, __P101, __P110, __P111,
	__S000, __S001, __S010, __S011, __S100, __S101, __S110, __S111
};

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pgprot_t vm_get_page_prot(unsigned long vm_flags)
{
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	return __pgprot(pgprot_val(protection_map[vm_flags &
				(VM_READ|VM_WRITE|VM_EXEC|VM_SHARED)]) |
			pgprot_val(arch_vm_get_page_prot(vm_flags)));
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}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(vm_get_page_prot);

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int sysctl_overcommit_memory = OVERCOMMIT_GUESS;  /* heuristic overcommit */
int sysctl_overcommit_ratio = 50;	/* default is 50% */
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int sysctl_max_map_count __read_mostly = DEFAULT_MAX_MAP_COUNT;
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struct percpu_counter vm_committed_as;
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/*
 * Check that a process has enough memory to allocate a new virtual
 * mapping. 0 means there is enough memory for the allocation to
 * succeed and -ENOMEM implies there is not.
 *
 * We currently support three overcommit policies, which are set via the
 * vm.overcommit_memory sysctl.  See Documentation/vm/overcommit-accounting
 *
 * Strict overcommit modes added 2002 Feb 26 by Alan Cox.
 * Additional code 2002 Jul 20 by Robert Love.
 *
 * cap_sys_admin is 1 if the process has admin privileges, 0 otherwise.
 *
 * Note this is a helper function intended to be used by LSMs which
 * wish to use this logic.
 */
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int __vm_enough_memory(struct mm_struct *mm, long pages, int cap_sys_admin)
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{
	unsigned long free, allowed;

	vm_acct_memory(pages);

	/*
	 * Sometimes we want to use more memory than we have
	 */
	if (sysctl_overcommit_memory == OVERCOMMIT_ALWAYS)
		return 0;

	if (sysctl_overcommit_memory == OVERCOMMIT_GUESS) {
		unsigned long n;

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		free = global_page_state(NR_FILE_PAGES);
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		free += nr_swap_pages;

		/*
		 * Any slabs which are created with the
		 * SLAB_RECLAIM_ACCOUNT flag claim to have contents
		 * which are reclaimable, under pressure.  The dentry
		 * cache and most inode caches should fall into this
		 */
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		free += global_page_state(NR_SLAB_RECLAIMABLE);
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		/*
		 * Leave the last 3% for root
		 */
		if (!cap_sys_admin)
			free -= free / 32;

		if (free > pages)
			return 0;

		/*
		 * nr_free_pages() is very expensive on large systems,
		 * only call if we're about to fail.
		 */
		n = nr_free_pages();
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		/*
		 * Leave reserved pages. The pages are not for anonymous pages.
		 */
		if (n <= totalreserve_pages)
			goto error;
		else
			n -= totalreserve_pages;

		/*
		 * Leave the last 3% for root
		 */
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		if (!cap_sys_admin)
			n -= n / 32;
		free += n;

		if (free > pages)
			return 0;
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		goto error;
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	}

	allowed = (totalram_pages - hugetlb_total_pages())
	       	* sysctl_overcommit_ratio / 100;
	/*
	 * Leave the last 3% for root
	 */
	if (!cap_sys_admin)
		allowed -= allowed / 32;
	allowed += total_swap_pages;

	/* Don't let a single process grow too big:
	   leave 3% of the size of this process for other processes */
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	if (mm)
		allowed -= mm->total_vm / 32;
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	if (percpu_counter_read_positive(&vm_committed_as) < allowed)
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		return 0;
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error:
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	vm_unacct_memory(pages);

	return -ENOMEM;
}

/*
 * Requires inode->i_mapping->i_mmap_lock
 */
static void __remove_shared_vm_struct(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
		struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping)
{
	if (vma->vm_flags & VM_DENYWRITE)
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		atomic_inc(&file->f_path.dentry->d_inode->i_writecount);
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	if (vma->vm_flags & VM_SHARED)
		mapping->i_mmap_writable--;

	flush_dcache_mmap_lock(mapping);
	if (unlikely(vma->vm_flags & VM_NONLINEAR))
		list_del_init(&vma->shared.vm_set.list);
	else
		vma_prio_tree_remove(vma, &mapping->i_mmap);
	flush_dcache_mmap_unlock(mapping);
}

/*
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 * Unlink a file-based vm structure from its prio_tree, to hide
 * vma from rmap and vmtruncate before freeing its page tables.
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 */
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void unlink_file_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
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{
	struct file *file = vma->vm_file;

	if (file) {
		struct address_space *mapping = file->f_mapping;
		spin_lock(&mapping->i_mmap_lock);
		__remove_shared_vm_struct(vma, file, mapping);
		spin_unlock(&mapping->i_mmap_lock);
	}
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}

/*
 * Close a vm structure and free it, returning the next.
 */
static struct vm_area_struct *remove_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
	struct vm_area_struct *next = vma->vm_next;

	might_sleep();
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	if (vma->vm_ops && vma->vm_ops->close)
		vma->vm_ops->close(vma);
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	if (vma->vm_file) {
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		fput(vma->vm_file);
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		if (vma->vm_flags & VM_EXECUTABLE)
			removed_exe_file_vma(vma->vm_mm);
	}
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	mpol_put(vma_policy(vma));
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	kmem_cache_free(vm_area_cachep, vma);
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	return next;
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}

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SYSCALL_DEFINE1(brk, unsigned long, brk)
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{
	unsigned long rlim, retval;
	unsigned long newbrk, oldbrk;
	struct mm_struct *mm = current->mm;
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	unsigned long min_brk;
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	down_write(&mm->mmap_sem);

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#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT_BRK
	min_brk = mm->end_code;
#else
	min_brk = mm->start_brk;
#endif
	if (brk < min_brk)
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		goto out;
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	/*
	 * Check against rlimit here. If this check is done later after the test
	 * of oldbrk with newbrk then it can escape the test and let the data
	 * segment grow beyond its set limit the in case where the limit is
	 * not page aligned -Ram Gupta
	 */
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	rlim = rlimit(RLIMIT_DATA);
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	if (rlim < RLIM_INFINITY && (brk - mm->start_brk) +
			(mm->end_data - mm->start_data) > rlim)
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		goto out;

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	newbrk = PAGE_ALIGN(brk);
	oldbrk = PAGE_ALIGN(mm->brk);
	if (oldbrk == newbrk)
		goto set_brk;

	/* Always allow shrinking brk. */
	if (brk <= mm->brk) {
		if (!do_munmap(mm, newbrk, oldbrk-newbrk))
			goto set_brk;
		goto out;
	}

	/* Check against existing mmap mappings. */
	if (find_vma_intersection(mm, oldbrk, newbrk+PAGE_SIZE))
		goto out;

	/* Ok, looks good - let it rip. */
	if (do_brk(oldbrk, newbrk-oldbrk) != oldbrk)
		goto out;
set_brk:
	mm->brk = brk;
out:
	retval = mm->brk;
	up_write(&mm->mmap_sem);
	return retval;
}

#ifdef DEBUG_MM_RB
static int browse_rb(struct rb_root *root)
{
	int i = 0, j;
	struct rb_node *nd, *pn = NULL;
	unsigned long prev = 0, pend = 0;

	for (nd = rb_first(root); nd; nd = rb_next(nd)) {
		struct vm_area_struct *vma;
		vma = rb_entry(nd, struct vm_area_struct, vm_rb);
		if (vma->vm_start < prev)
			printk("vm_start %lx prev %lx\n", vma->vm_start, prev), i = -1;
		if (vma->vm_start < pend)
			printk("vm_start %lx pend %lx\n", vma->vm_start, pend);
		if (vma->vm_start > vma->vm_end)
			printk("vm_end %lx < vm_start %lx\n", vma->vm_end, vma->vm_start);
		i++;
		pn = nd;
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		prev = vma->vm_start;
		pend = vma->vm_end;
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	}
	j = 0;
	for (nd = pn; nd; nd = rb_prev(nd)) {
		j++;
	}
	if (i != j)
		printk("backwards %d, forwards %d\n", j, i), i = 0;
	return i;
}

void validate_mm(struct mm_struct *mm)
{
	int bug = 0;
	int i = 0;
	struct vm_area_struct *tmp = mm->mmap;
	while (tmp) {
		tmp = tmp->vm_next;
		i++;
	}
	if (i != mm->map_count)
		printk("map_count %d vm_next %d\n", mm->map_count, i), bug = 1;
	i = browse_rb(&mm->mm_rb);
	if (i != mm->map_count)
		printk("map_count %d rb %d\n", mm->map_count, i), bug = 1;
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	BUG_ON(bug);
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}
#else
#define validate_mm(mm) do { } while (0)
#endif

static struct vm_area_struct *
find_vma_prepare(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long addr,
		struct vm_area_struct **pprev, struct rb_node ***rb_link,
		struct rb_node ** rb_parent)
{
	struct vm_area_struct * vma;
	struct rb_node ** __rb_link, * __rb_parent, * rb_prev;

	__rb_link = &mm->mm_rb.rb_node;
	rb_prev = __rb_parent = NULL;
	vma = NULL;

	while (*__rb_link) {
		struct vm_area_struct *vma_tmp;

		__rb_parent = *__rb_link;
		vma_tmp = rb_entry(__rb_parent, struct vm_area_struct, vm_rb);

		if (vma_tmp->vm_end > addr) {
			vma = vma_tmp;
			if (vma_tmp->vm_start <= addr)
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				break;
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			__rb_link = &__rb_parent->rb_left;
		} else {
			rb_prev = __rb_parent;
			__rb_link = &__rb_parent->rb_right;
		}
	}

	*pprev = NULL;
	if (rb_prev)
		*pprev = rb_entry(rb_prev, struct vm_area_struct, vm_rb);
	*rb_link = __rb_link;
	*rb_parent = __rb_parent;
	return vma;
}

static inline void
__vma_link_list(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
		struct vm_area_struct *prev, struct rb_node *rb_parent)
{
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	struct vm_area_struct *next;

	vma->vm_prev = prev;
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	if (prev) {
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		next = prev->vm_next;
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		prev->vm_next = vma;
	} else {
		mm->mmap = vma;
		if (rb_parent)
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			next = rb_entry(rb_parent,
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					struct vm_area_struct, vm_rb);
		else
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			next = NULL;
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	}
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	vma->vm_next = next;
	if (next)
		next->vm_prev = vma;
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}

void __vma_link_rb(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
		struct rb_node **rb_link, struct rb_node *rb_parent)
{
	rb_link_node(&vma->vm_rb, rb_parent, rb_link);
	rb_insert_color(&vma->vm_rb, &mm->mm_rb);
}

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static void __vma_link_file(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
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{
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	struct file *file;
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	file = vma->vm_file;
	if (file) {
		struct address_space *mapping = file->f_mapping;

		if (vma->vm_flags & VM_DENYWRITE)
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			atomic_dec(&file->f_path.dentry->d_inode->i_writecount);
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		if (vma->vm_flags & VM_SHARED)
			mapping->i_mmap_writable++;

		flush_dcache_mmap_lock(mapping);
		if (unlikely(vma->vm_flags & VM_NONLINEAR))
			vma_nonlinear_insert(vma, &mapping->i_mmap_nonlinear);
		else
			vma_prio_tree_insert(vma, &mapping->i_mmap);
		flush_dcache_mmap_unlock(mapping);
	}
}

static void
__vma_link(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
	struct vm_area_struct *prev, struct rb_node **rb_link,
	struct rb_node *rb_parent)
{
	__vma_link_list(mm, vma, prev, rb_parent);
	__vma_link_rb(mm, vma, rb_link, rb_parent);
}

static void vma_link(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
			struct vm_area_struct *prev, struct rb_node **rb_link,
			struct rb_node *rb_parent)
{
	struct address_space *mapping = NULL;

	if (vma->vm_file)
		mapping = vma->vm_file->f_mapping;

	if (mapping) {
		spin_lock(&mapping->i_mmap_lock);
		vma->vm_truncate_count = mapping->truncate_count;
	}

	__vma_link(mm, vma, prev, rb_link, rb_parent);
	__vma_link_file(vma);

	if (mapping)
		spin_unlock(&mapping->i_mmap_lock);

	mm->map_count++;
	validate_mm(mm);
}

/*
 * Helper for vma_adjust in the split_vma insert case:
 * insert vm structure into list and rbtree and anon_vma,
 * but it has already been inserted into prio_tree earlier.
 */
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static void __insert_vm_struct(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma)
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{
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	struct vm_area_struct *__vma, *prev;
	struct rb_node **rb_link, *rb_parent;
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	__vma = find_vma_prepare(mm, vma->vm_start,&prev, &rb_link, &rb_parent);
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	BUG_ON(__vma && __vma->vm_start < vma->vm_end);
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	__vma_link(mm, vma, prev, rb_link, rb_parent);
	mm->map_count++;
}

static inline void
__vma_unlink(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
		struct vm_area_struct *prev)
{
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	struct vm_area_struct *next = vma->vm_next;

	prev->vm_next = next;
	if (next)
		next->vm_prev = prev;
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	rb_erase(&vma->vm_rb, &mm->mm_rb);
	if (mm->mmap_cache == vma)
		mm->mmap_cache = prev;
}

/*
 * We cannot adjust vm_start, vm_end, vm_pgoff fields of a vma that
 * is already present in an i_mmap tree without adjusting the tree.
 * The following helper function should be used when such adjustments
 * are necessary.  The "insert" vma (if any) is to be inserted
 * before we drop the necessary locks.
 */
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int vma_adjust(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long start,
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	unsigned long end, pgoff_t pgoff, struct vm_area_struct *insert)
{
	struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
	struct vm_area_struct *next = vma->vm_next;
	struct vm_area_struct *importer = NULL;
	struct address_space *mapping = NULL;
	struct prio_tree_root *root = NULL;
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	struct anon_vma *anon_vma = NULL;
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	struct file *file = vma->vm_file;
	long adjust_next = 0;
	int remove_next = 0;

	if (next && !insert) {
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		struct vm_area_struct *exporter = NULL;

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		if (end >= next->vm_end) {
			/*
			 * vma expands, overlapping all the next, and
			 * perhaps the one after too (mprotect case 6).
			 */
again:			remove_next = 1 + (end > next->vm_end);
			end = next->vm_end;
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			exporter = next;
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			importer = vma;
		} else if (end > next->vm_start) {
			/*
			 * vma expands, overlapping part of the next:
			 * mprotect case 5 shifting the boundary up.
			 */
			adjust_next = (end - next->vm_start) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
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			exporter = next;
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			importer = vma;
		} else if (end < vma->vm_end) {
			/*
			 * vma shrinks, and !insert tells it's not
			 * split_vma inserting another: so it must be
			 * mprotect case 4 shifting the boundary down.
			 */
			adjust_next = - ((vma->vm_end - end) >> PAGE_SHIFT);
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			exporter = vma;
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			importer = next;
		}

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		/*
		 * Easily overlooked: when mprotect shifts the boundary,
		 * make sure the expanding vma has anon_vma set if the
		 * shrinking vma had, to cover any anon pages imported.
		 */
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		if (exporter && exporter->anon_vma && !importer->anon_vma) {
			if (anon_vma_clone(importer, exporter))
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				return -ENOMEM;
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			importer->anon_vma = exporter->anon_vma;
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		}
	}

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	if (file) {
		mapping = file->f_mapping;
		if (!(vma->vm_flags & VM_NONLINEAR))
			root = &mapping->i_mmap;
		spin_lock(&mapping->i_mmap_lock);
		if (importer &&
		    vma->vm_truncate_count != next->vm_truncate_count) {
			/*
			 * unmap_mapping_range might be in progress:
			 * ensure that the expanding vma is rescanned.
			 */
			importer->vm_truncate_count = 0;
		}
		if (insert) {
			insert->vm_truncate_count = vma->vm_truncate_count;
			/*
			 * Put into prio_tree now, so instantiated pages
			 * are visible to arm/parisc __flush_dcache_page
			 * throughout; but we cannot insert into address
			 * space until vma start or end is updated.
			 */
			__vma_link_file(insert);
		}
	}

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	/*
	 * When changing only vma->vm_end, we don't really need anon_vma
	 * lock. This is a fairly rare case by itself, but the anon_vma
	 * lock may be shared between many sibling processes.  Skipping
	 * the lock for brk adjustments makes a difference sometimes.
	 */
	if (vma->anon_vma && (insert || importer || start != vma->vm_start)) {
		anon_vma = vma->anon_vma;
		anon_vma_lock(anon_vma);
	}

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	if (root) {
		flush_dcache_mmap_lock(mapping);
		vma_prio_tree_remove(vma, root);
		if (adjust_next)
			vma_prio_tree_remove(next, root);
	}

	vma->vm_start = start;
	vma->vm_end = end;
	vma->vm_pgoff = pgoff;
	if (adjust_next) {
		next->vm_start += adjust_next << PAGE_SHIFT;
		next->vm_pgoff += adjust_next;
	}

	if (root) {
		if (adjust_next)
			vma_prio_tree_insert(next, root);
		vma_prio_tree_insert(vma, root);
		flush_dcache_mmap_unlock(mapping);
	}

	if (remove_next) {
		/*
		 * vma_merge has merged next into vma, and needs
		 * us to remove next before dropping the locks.
		 */
		__vma_unlink(mm, next, vma);
		if (file)
			__remove_shared_vm_struct(next, file, mapping);
	} else if (insert) {
		/*
		 * split_vma has split insert from vma, and needs
		 * us to insert it before dropping the locks
		 * (it may either follow vma or precede it).
		 */
		__insert_vm_struct(mm, insert);
	}

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	if (anon_vma)
		anon_vma_unlock(anon_vma);
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	if (mapping)
		spin_unlock(&mapping->i_mmap_lock);

	if (remove_next) {
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		if (file) {
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			fput(file);
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			if (next->vm_flags & VM_EXECUTABLE)
				removed_exe_file_vma(mm);
		}
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		if (next->anon_vma)
			anon_vma_merge(vma, next);
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		mm->map_count--;
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		mpol_put(vma_policy(next));
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		kmem_cache_free(vm_area_cachep, next);
		/*
		 * In mprotect's case 6 (see comments on vma_merge),
		 * we must remove another next too. It would clutter
		 * up the code too much to do both in one go.
		 */
		if (remove_next == 2) {
			next = vma->vm_next;
			goto again;
		}
	}

	validate_mm(mm);
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	return 0;
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}

/*
 * If the vma has a ->close operation then the driver probably needs to release
 * per-vma resources, so we don't attempt to merge those.
 */
static inline int is_mergeable_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
			struct file *file, unsigned long vm_flags)
{
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	/* VM_CAN_NONLINEAR may get set later by f_op->mmap() */
	if ((vma->vm_flags ^ vm_flags) & ~VM_CAN_NONLINEAR)
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		return 0;
	if (vma->vm_file != file)
		return 0;
	if (vma->vm_ops && vma->vm_ops->close)
		return 0;
	return 1;
}

static inline int is_mergeable_anon_vma(struct anon_vma *anon_vma1,
					struct anon_vma *anon_vma2)
{
	return !anon_vma1 || !anon_vma2 || (anon_vma1 == anon_vma2);
}

/*
 * Return true if we can merge this (vm_flags,anon_vma,file,vm_pgoff)
 * in front of (at a lower virtual address and file offset than) the vma.
 *
 * We cannot merge two vmas if they have differently assigned (non-NULL)
 * anon_vmas, nor if same anon_vma is assigned but offsets incompatible.
 *
 * We don't check here for the merged mmap wrapping around the end of pagecache
 * indices (16TB on ia32) because do_mmap_pgoff() does not permit mmap's which
 * wrap, nor mmaps which cover the final page at index -1UL.
 */
static int
can_vma_merge_before(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long vm_flags,
	struct anon_vma *anon_vma, struct file *file, pgoff_t vm_pgoff)
{
	if (is_mergeable_vma(vma, file, vm_flags) &&
	    is_mergeable_anon_vma(anon_vma, vma->anon_vma)) {
		if (vma->vm_pgoff == vm_pgoff)
			return 1;
	}
	return 0;
}

/*
 * Return true if we can merge this (vm_flags,anon_vma,file,vm_pgoff)
 * beyond (at a higher virtual address and file offset than) the vma.
 *
 * We cannot merge two vmas if they have differently assigned (non-NULL)
 * anon_vmas, nor if same anon_vma is assigned but offsets incompatible.
 */
static int
can_vma_merge_after(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long vm_flags,
	struct anon_vma *anon_vma, struct file *file, pgoff_t vm_pgoff)
{
	if (is_mergeable_vma(vma, file, vm_flags) &&
	    is_mergeable_anon_vma(anon_vma, vma->anon_vma)) {
		pgoff_t vm_pglen;
		vm_pglen = (vma->vm_end - vma->vm_start) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
		if (vma->vm_pgoff + vm_pglen == vm_pgoff)
			return 1;
	}
	return 0;
}

/*
 * Given a mapping request (addr,end,vm_flags,file,pgoff), figure out
 * whether that can be merged with its predecessor or its successor.
 * Or both (it neatly fills a hole).
 *
 * In most cases - when called for mmap, brk or mremap - [addr,end) is
 * certain not to be mapped by the time vma_merge is called; but when
 * called for mprotect, it is certain to be already mapped (either at
 * an offset within prev, or at the start of next), and the flags of
 * this area are about to be changed to vm_flags - and the no-change
 * case has already been eliminated.
 *
 * The following mprotect cases have to be considered, where AAAA is
 * the area passed down from mprotect_fixup, never extending beyond one
 * vma, PPPPPP is the prev vma specified, and NNNNNN the next vma after:
 *
 *     AAAA             AAAA                AAAA          AAAA
 *    PPPPPPNNNNNN    PPPPPPNNNNNN    PPPPPPNNNNNN    PPPPNNNNXXXX
 *    cannot merge    might become    might become    might become
 *                    PPNNNNNNNNNN    PPPPPPPPPPNN    PPPPPPPPPPPP 6 or
 *    mmap, brk or    case 4 below    case 5 below    PPPPPPPPXXXX 7 or
 *    mremap move:                                    PPPPNNNNNNNN 8
 *        AAAA
 *    PPPP    NNNN    PPPPPPPPPPPP    PPPPPPPPNNNN    PPPPNNNNNNNN
 *    might become    case 1 below    case 2 below    case 3 below
 *
 * Odd one out? Case 8, because it extends NNNN but needs flags of XXXX:
 * mprotect_fixup updates vm_flags & vm_page_prot on successful return.
 */
struct vm_area_struct *vma_merge(struct mm_struct *mm,
			struct vm_area_struct *prev, unsigned long addr,
			unsigned long end, unsigned long vm_flags,
		     	struct anon_vma *anon_vma, struct file *file,
			pgoff_t pgoff, struct mempolicy *policy)
{
	pgoff_t pglen = (end - addr) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	struct vm_area_struct *area, *next;
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	int err;
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	/*
	 * We later require that vma->vm_flags == vm_flags,
	 * so this tests vma->vm_flags & VM_SPECIAL, too.
	 */
	if (vm_flags & VM_SPECIAL)
		return NULL;

	if (prev)
		next = prev->vm_next;
	else
		next = mm->mmap;
	area = next;
	if (next && next->vm_end == end)		/* cases 6, 7, 8 */
		next = next->vm_next;

	/*
	 * Can it merge with the predecessor?
	 */
	if (prev && prev->vm_end == addr &&
  			mpol_equal(vma_policy(prev), policy) &&
			can_vma_merge_after(prev, vm_flags,
						anon_vma, file, pgoff)) {
		/*
		 * OK, it can.  Can we now merge in the successor as well?
		 */
		if (next && end == next->vm_start &&
				mpol_equal(policy, vma_policy(next)) &&
				can_vma_merge_before(next, vm_flags,
					anon_vma, file, pgoff+pglen) &&
				is_mergeable_anon_vma(prev->anon_vma,
						      next->anon_vma)) {
							/* cases 1, 6 */
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			err = vma_adjust(prev, prev->vm_start,
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				next->vm_end, prev->vm_pgoff, NULL);
		} else					/* cases 2, 5, 7 */
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			err = vma_adjust(prev, prev->vm_start,
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				end, prev->vm_pgoff, NULL);
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		if (err)
			return NULL;
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		return prev;
	}

	/*
	 * Can this new request be merged in front of next?
	 */
	if (next && end == next->vm_start &&
 			mpol_equal(policy, vma_policy(next)) &&
			can_vma_merge_before(next, vm_flags,
					anon_vma, file, pgoff+pglen)) {
		if (prev && addr < prev->vm_end)	/* case 4 */
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			err = vma_adjust(prev, prev->vm_start,
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				addr, prev->vm_pgoff, NULL);
		else					/* cases 3, 8 */
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			err = vma_adjust(area, addr, next->vm_end,
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				next->vm_pgoff - pglen, NULL);
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		if (err)
			return NULL;
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		return area;
	}

	return NULL;
}

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/*
 * Rough compatbility check to quickly see if it's even worth looking
 * at sharing an anon_vma.
 *
 * They need to have the same vm_file, and the flags can only differ
 * in things that mprotect may change.
 *
 * NOTE! The fact that we share an anon_vma doesn't _have_ to mean that
 * we can merge the two vma's. For example, we refuse to merge a vma if
 * there is a vm_ops->close() function, because that indicates that the
 * driver is doing some kind of reference counting. But that doesn't
 * really matter for the anon_vma sharing case.
 */
static int anon_vma_compatible(struct vm_area_struct *a, struct vm_area_struct *b)
{
	return a->vm_end == b->vm_start &&
		mpol_equal(vma_policy(a), vma_policy(b)) &&
		a->vm_file == b->vm_file &&
		!((a->vm_flags ^ b->vm_flags) & ~(VM_READ|VM_WRITE|VM_EXEC)) &&
		b->vm_pgoff == a->vm_pgoff + ((b->vm_start - a->vm_start) >> PAGE_SHIFT);
}

/*
 * Do some basic sanity checking to see if we can re-use the anon_vma
 * from 'old'. The 'a'/'b' vma's are in VM order - one of them will be
 * the same as 'old', the other will be the new one that is trying
 * to share the anon_vma.
 *
 * NOTE! This runs with mm_sem held for reading, so it is possible that
 * the anon_vma of 'old' is concurrently in the process of being set up
 * by another page fault trying to merge _that_. But that's ok: if it
 * is being set up, that automatically means that it will be a singleton
 * acceptable for merging, so we can do all of this optimistically. But
 * we do that ACCESS_ONCE() to make sure that we never re-load the pointer.
 *
 * IOW: that the "list_is_singular()" test on the anon_vma_chain only
 * matters for the 'stable anon_vma' case (ie the thing we want to avoid
 * is to return an anon_vma that is "complex" due to having gone through
 * a fork).
 *
 * We also make sure that the two vma's are compatible (adjacent,
 * and with the same memory policies). That's all stable, even with just
 * a read lock on the mm_sem.
 */
static struct anon_vma *reusable_anon_vma(struct vm_area_struct *old, struct vm_area_struct *a, struct vm_area_struct *b)
{
	if (anon_vma_compatible(a, b)) {
		struct anon_vma *anon_vma = ACCESS_ONCE(old->anon_vma);

		if (anon_vma && list_is_singular(&old->anon_vma_chain))
			return anon_vma;
	}
	return NULL;
}

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/*
 * find_mergeable_anon_vma is used by anon_vma_prepare, to check
 * neighbouring vmas for a suitable anon_vma, before it goes off
 * to allocate a new anon_vma.  It checks because a repetitive
 * sequence of mprotects and faults may otherwise lead to distinct
 * anon_vmas being allocated, preventing vma merge in subsequent
 * mprotect.
 */
struct anon_vma *find_mergeable_anon_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
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	struct anon_vma *anon_vma;
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	struct vm_area_struct *near;

	near = vma->vm_next;
	if (!near)
		goto try_prev;

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	anon_vma = reusable_anon_vma(near, vma, near);
	if (anon_vma)
		return anon_vma;
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try_prev:
	/*
	 * It is potentially slow to have to call find_vma_prev here.
	 * But it's only on the first write fault on the vma, not
	 * every time, and we could devise a way to avoid it later
	 * (e.g. stash info in next's anon_vma_node when assigning
	 * an anon_vma, or when trying vma_merge).  Another time.
	 */
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	BUG_ON(find_vma_prev(vma->vm_mm, vma->vm_start, &near) != vma);
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	if (!near)
		goto none;

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	anon_vma = reusable_anon_vma(near, near, vma);
	if (anon_vma)
		return anon_vma;
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none:
	/*
	 * There's no absolute need to look only at touching neighbours:
	 * we could search further afield for "compatible" anon_vmas.
	 * But it would probably just be a waste of time searching,
	 * or lead to too many vmas hanging off the same anon_vma.
	 * We're trying to allow mprotect remerging later on,
	 * not trying to minimize memory used for anon_vmas.
	 */
	return NULL;
}

#ifdef CONFIG_PROC_FS
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void vm_stat_account(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long flags,
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						struct file *file, long pages)
{
	const unsigned long stack_flags
		= VM_STACK_FLAGS & (VM_GROWSUP|VM_GROWSDOWN);

	if (file) {
		mm->shared_vm += pages;
		if ((flags & (VM_EXEC|VM_WRITE)) == VM_EXEC)
			mm->exec_vm += pages;
	} else if (flags & stack_flags)
		mm->stack_vm += pages;
	if (flags & (VM_RESERVED|VM_IO))
		mm->reserved_vm += pages;
}
#endif /* CONFIG_PROC_FS */

/*
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 * The caller must hold down_write(&current->mm->mmap_sem).
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 */

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unsigned long do_mmap_pgoff(struct file *file, unsigned long addr,
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			unsigned long len, unsigned long prot,
			unsigned long flags, unsigned long pgoff)
{
	struct mm_struct * mm = current->mm;
	struct inode *inode;
	unsigned int vm_flags;
	int error;
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	unsigned long reqprot = prot;
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	/*
	 * Does the application expect PROT_READ to imply PROT_EXEC?
	 *
	 * (the exception is when the underlying filesystem is noexec
	 *  mounted, in which case we dont add PROT_EXEC.)
	 */
	if ((prot & PROT_READ) && (current->personality & READ_IMPLIES_EXEC))
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		if (!(file && (file->f_path.mnt->mnt_flags & MNT_NOEXEC)))
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			prot |= PROT_EXEC;

	if (!len)
		return -EINVAL;

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	if (!(flags & MAP_FIXED))
		addr = round_hint_to_min(addr);

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	/* Careful about overflows.. */
	len = PAGE_ALIGN(len);
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	if (!len)
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		return -ENOMEM;

	/* offset overflow? */
	if ((pgoff + (len >> PAGE_SHIFT)) < pgoff)
               return -EOVERFLOW;

	/* Too many mappings? */
	if (mm->map_count > sysctl_max_map_count)
		return -ENOMEM;

	/* Obtain the address to map to. we verify (or select) it and ensure
	 * that it represents a valid section of the address space.
	 */
	addr = get_unmapped_area(file, addr, len, pgoff, flags);
	if (addr & ~PAGE_MASK)
		return addr;

	/* Do simple checking here so the lower-level routines won't have
	 * to. we assume access permissions have been handled by the open
	 * of the memory object, so we don't do any here.
	 */
	vm_flags = calc_vm_prot_bits(prot) | calc_vm_flag_bits(flags) |
			mm->def_flags | VM_MAYREAD | VM_MAYWRITE | VM_MAYEXEC;

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	if (flags & MAP_LOCKED)
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		if (!can_do_mlock())
			return -EPERM;
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	/* mlock MCL_FUTURE? */
	if (vm_flags & VM_LOCKED) {
		unsigned long locked, lock_limit;
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		locked = len >> PAGE_SHIFT;
		locked += mm->locked_vm;
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		lock_limit = rlimit(RLIMIT_MEMLOCK);
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		lock_limit >>= PAGE_SHIFT;
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		if (locked > lock_limit && !capable(CAP_IPC_LOCK))
			return -EAGAIN;
	}

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	inode = file ? file->f_path.dentry->d_inode : NULL;
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	if (file) {
		switch (flags & MAP_TYPE) {
		case MAP_SHARED:
			if ((prot&PROT_WRITE) && !(file->f_mode&FMODE_WRITE))
				return -EACCES;

			/*
			 * Make sure we don't allow writing to an append-only
			 * file..
			 */
			if (IS_APPEND(inode) && (file->f_mode & FMODE_WRITE))
				return -EACCES;

			/*
			 * Make sure there are no mandatory locks on the file.
			 */
			if (locks_verify_locked(inode))
				return -EAGAIN;

			vm_flags |= VM_SHARED | VM_MAYSHARE;
			if (!(file->f_mode & FMODE_WRITE))
				vm_flags &= ~(VM_MAYWRITE | VM_SHARED);

			/* fall through */
		case MAP_PRIVATE:
			if (!(file->f_mode & FMODE_READ))
				return -EACCES;
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			if (file->f_path.mnt->mnt_flags & MNT_NOEXEC) {
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				if (vm_flags & VM_EXEC)
					return -EPERM;
				vm_flags &= ~VM_MAYEXEC;
			}

			if (!file->f_op || !file->f_op->mmap)
				return -ENODEV;
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			break;

		default:
			return -EINVAL;
		}
	} else {
		switch (flags & MAP_TYPE) {
		case MAP_SHARED:
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			/*
			 * Ignore pgoff.
			 */
			pgoff = 0;
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			vm_flags |= VM_SHARED | VM_MAYSHARE;
			break;
		case MAP_PRIVATE:
			/*
			 * Set pgoff according to addr for anon_vma.
			 */
			pgoff = addr >> PAGE_SHIFT;
			break;
		default:
			return -EINVAL;
		}
	}

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	error = security_file_mmap(file, reqprot, prot, flags, addr, 0);
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	if (error)
		return error;
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	return mmap_region(file, addr, len, flags, vm_flags, pgoff);
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}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(do_mmap_pgoff);

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SYSCALL_DEFINE6(mmap_pgoff, unsigned long, addr, unsigned long, len,
		unsigned long, prot, unsigned long, flags,
		unsigned long, fd, unsigned long, pgoff)
{
	struct file *file = NULL;
	unsigned long retval = -EBADF;

	if (!(flags & MAP_ANONYMOUS)) {
		if (unlikely(flags & MAP_HUGETLB))
			return -EINVAL;
		file = fget(fd);
		if (!file)
			goto out;
	} else if (flags & MAP_HUGETLB) {
		struct user_struct *user = NULL;
		/*
		 * VM_NORESERVE is used because the reservations will be
		 * taken when vm_ops->mmap() is called
		 * A dummy user value is used because we are not locking
		 * memory so no accounting is necessary
		 */
		len = ALIGN(len, huge_page_size(&default_hstate));
		file = hugetlb_file_setup(HUGETLB_ANON_FILE, len, VM_NORESERVE,
						&user, HUGETLB_ANONHUGE_INODE);
		if (IS_ERR(file))
			return PTR_ERR(file);
	}

	flags &= ~(MAP_EXECUTABLE | MAP_DENYWRITE);

	down_write(&current->mm->mmap_sem);
	retval = do_mmap_pgoff(file, addr, len, prot, flags, pgoff);
	up_write(&current->mm->mmap_sem);

	if (file)
		fput(file);
out:
	return retval;
}

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#ifdef __ARCH_WANT_SYS_OLD_MMAP
struct mmap_arg_struct {
	unsigned long addr;
	unsigned long len;
	unsigned long prot;
	unsigned long flags;
	unsigned long fd;
	unsigned long offset;
};

SYSCALL_DEFINE1(old_mmap, struct mmap_arg_struct __user *, arg)
{
	struct mmap_arg_struct a;

	if (copy_from_user(&a, arg, sizeof(a)))
		return -EFAULT;
	if (a.offset & ~PAGE_MASK)
		return -EINVAL;

	return sys_mmap_pgoff(a.addr, a.len, a.prot, a.flags, a.fd,
			      a.offset >> PAGE_SHIFT);
}
#endif /* __ARCH_WANT_SYS_OLD_MMAP */

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/*
 * Some shared mappigns will want the pages marked read-only
 * to track write events. If so, we'll downgrade vm_page_prot
 * to the private version (using protection_map[] without the
 * VM_SHARED bit).
 */
int vma_wants_writenotify(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
	unsigned int vm_flags = vma->vm_flags;

	/* If it was private or non-writable, the write bit is already clear */
	if ((vm_flags & (VM_WRITE|VM_SHARED)) != ((VM_WRITE|VM_SHARED)))
		return 0;

	/* The backer wishes to know when pages are first written to? */
	if (vma->vm_ops && vma->vm_ops->page_mkwrite)
		return 1;

	/* The open routine did something to the protections already? */
	if (pgprot_val(vma->vm_page_prot) !=
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	    pgprot_val(vm_get_page_prot(vm_flags)))
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		return 0;

	/* Specialty mapping? */
	if (vm_flags & (VM_PFNMAP|VM_INSERTPAGE))
		return 0;

	/* Can the mapping track the dirty pages? */
	return vma->vm_file && vma->vm_file->f_mapping &&
		mapping_cap_account_dirty(vma->vm_file->f_mapping);
}

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/*
 * We account for memory if it's a private writeable mapping,
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 * not hugepages and VM_NORESERVE wasn't set.
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 */
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static inline int accountable_mapping(struct file *file, unsigned int vm_flags)
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{
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	/*
	 * hugetlb has its own accounting separate from the core VM
	 * VM_HUGETLB may not be set yet so we cannot check for that flag.
	 */
	if (file && is_file_hugepages(file))
		return 0;

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	return (vm_flags & (VM_NORESERVE | VM_SHARED | VM_WRITE)) == VM_WRITE;
}

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unsigned long mmap_region(struct file *file, unsigned long addr,
			  unsigned long len, unsigned long flags,
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			  unsigned int vm_flags, unsigned long pgoff)
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{
	struct mm_struct *mm = current->mm;
	struct vm_area_struct *vma, *prev;
	int correct_wcount = 0;
	int error;
	struct rb_node **rb_link, *rb_parent;
	unsigned long charged = 0;
	struct inode *inode =  file ? file->f_path.dentry->d_inode : NULL;

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	/* Clear old maps */
	error = -ENOMEM;
munmap_back:
	vma = find_vma_prepare(mm, addr, &prev, &rb_link, &rb_parent);
	if (vma && vma->vm_start < addr + len) {
		if (do_munmap(mm, addr, len))
			return -ENOMEM;
		goto munmap_back;
	}

	/* Check against address space limit. */
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	if (!may_expand_vm(mm, len >> PAGE_SHIFT))
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		return -ENOMEM;

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	/*
	 * Set 'VM_NORESERVE' if we should not account for the
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	 * memory use of this mapping.
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	 */
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	if ((flags & MAP_NORESERVE)) {
		/* We honor MAP_NORESERVE if allowed to overcommit */
		if (sysctl_overcommit_memory != OVERCOMMIT_NEVER)
			vm_flags |= VM_NORESERVE;

		/* hugetlb applies strict overcommit unless MAP_NORESERVE */
		if (file && is_file_hugepages(file))
			vm_flags |= VM_NORESERVE;
	}
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	/*
	 * Private writable mapping: check memory availability
	 */
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	if (accountable_mapping(file, vm_flags)) {
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		charged = len >> PAGE_SHIFT;
		if (security_vm_enough_memory(charged))
			return -ENOMEM;
		vm_flags |= VM_ACCOUNT;
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	}

	/*
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	 * Can we just expand an old mapping?
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	 */
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	vma = vma_merge(mm, prev, addr, addr + len, vm_flags, NULL, file, pgoff, NULL);
	if (vma)
		goto out;
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	/*
	 * Determine the object being mapped and call the appropriate
	 * specific mapper. the address has already been validated, but
	 * not unmapped, but the maps are removed from the list.
	 */
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	vma = kmem_cache_zalloc(vm_area_cachep, GFP_KERNEL);
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	if (!vma) {
		error = -ENOMEM;
		goto unacct_error;
	}

	vma->vm_mm = mm;
	vma->vm_start = addr;
	vma->vm_end = addr + len;
	vma->vm_flags = vm_flags;
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	vma->vm_page_prot = vm_get_page_prot(vm_flags);
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	vma->vm_pgoff = pgoff;
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	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&vma->anon_vma_chain);
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	if (file) {
		error = -EINVAL;
		if (vm_flags & (VM_GROWSDOWN|VM_GROWSUP))
			goto free_vma;
		if (vm_flags & VM_DENYWRITE) {
			error = deny_write_access(file);
			if (error)
				goto free_vma;
			correct_wcount = 1;
		}
		vma->vm_file = file;
		get_file(file);
		error = file->f_op->mmap(file, vma);
		if (error)
			goto unmap_and_free_vma;
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		if (vm_flags & VM_EXECUTABLE)
			added_exe_file_vma(mm);
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		/* Can addr have changed??
		 *
		 * Answer: Yes, several device drivers can do it in their
		 *         f_op->mmap method. -DaveM
		 */
		addr = vma->vm_start;
		pgoff = vma->vm_pgoff;
		vm_flags = vma->vm_flags;
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	} else if (vm_flags & VM_SHARED) {
		error = shmem_zero_setup(vma);
		if (error)
			goto free_vma;
	}

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	if (vma_wants_writenotify(vma)) {
		pgprot_t pprot = vma->vm_page_prot;

		/* Can vma->vm_page_prot have changed??
		 *
		 * Answer: Yes, drivers may have changed it in their
		 *         f_op->mmap method.
		 *
		 * Ensures that vmas marked as uncached stay that way.
		 */
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		vma->vm_page_prot = vm_get_page_prot(vm_flags & ~VM_SHARED);
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		if (pgprot_val(pprot) == pgprot_val(pgprot_noncached(pprot)))
			vma->vm_page_prot = pgprot_noncached(vma->vm_page_prot);
	}
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	vma_link(mm, vma, prev, rb_link, rb_parent);
	file = vma->vm_file;
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	/* Once vma denies write, undo our temporary denial count */
	if (correct_wcount)
		atomic_inc(&inode->i_writecount);
out:
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	perf_event_mmap(vma);
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	mm->total_vm += len >> PAGE_SHIFT;
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	vm_stat_account(mm, vm_flags, file, len >> PAGE_SHIFT);
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	if (vm_flags & VM_LOCKED) {
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		if (!mlock_vma_pages_range(vma, addr, addr + len))
			mm->locked_vm += (len >> PAGE_SHIFT);
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	} else if ((flags & MAP_POPULATE) && !(flags & MAP_NONBLOCK))
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		make_pages_present(addr, addr + len);
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	return addr;

unmap_and_free_vma:
	if (correct_wcount)
		atomic_inc(&inode->i_writecount);
	vma->vm_file = NULL;
	fput(file);

	/* Undo any partial mapping done by a device driver. */
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	unmap_region(mm, vma, prev, vma->vm_start, vma->vm_end);
	charged = 0;
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free_vma:
	kmem_cache_free(vm_area_cachep, vma);
unacct_error:
	if (charged)
		vm_unacct_memory(charged);
	return error;
}

/* Get an address range which is currently unmapped.
 * For shmat() with addr=0.
 *
 * Ugly calling convention alert:
 * Return value with the low bits set means error value,
 * ie
 *	if (ret & ~PAGE_MASK)
 *		error = ret;
 *
 * This function "knows" that -ENOMEM has the bits set.
 */
#ifndef HAVE_ARCH_UNMAPPED_AREA
unsigned long
arch_get_unmapped_area(struct file *filp, unsigned long addr,
		unsigned long len, unsigned long pgoff, unsigned long flags)
{
	struct mm_struct *mm = current->mm;
	struct vm_area_struct *vma;
	unsigned long start_addr;

	if (len > TASK_SIZE)
		return -ENOMEM;

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	if (flags & MAP_FIXED)
		return addr;

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	if (addr) {
		addr = PAGE_ALIGN(addr);
		vma = find_vma(mm, addr);
		if (TASK_SIZE - len >= addr &&
		    (!vma || addr + len <= vma->vm_start))
			return addr;
	}
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	if (len > mm->cached_hole_size) {
	        start_addr = addr = mm->free_area_cache;
	} else {
	        start_addr = addr = TASK_UNMAPPED_BASE;
	        mm->cached_hole_size = 0;
	}
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full_search:
	for (vma = find_vma(mm, addr); ; vma = vma->vm_next) {
		/* At this point:  (!vma || addr < vma->vm_end). */
		if (TASK_SIZE - len < addr) {
			/*
			 * Start a new search - just in case we missed
			 * some holes.
			 */
			if (start_addr != TASK_UNMAPPED_BASE) {
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				addr = TASK_UNMAPPED_BASE;
			        start_addr = addr;
				mm->cached_hole_size = 0;
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				goto full_search;
			}
			return -ENOMEM;
		}
		if (!vma || addr + len <= vma->vm_start) {
			/*
			 * Remember the place where we stopped the search:
			 */
			mm->free_area_cache = addr + len;
			return addr;
		}
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		if (addr + mm->cached_hole_size < vma->vm_start)
		        mm->cached_hole_size = vma->vm_start - addr;
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		addr = vma->vm_end;
	}
<