rmap.c 50.7 KB
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/*
 * mm/rmap.c - physical to virtual reverse mappings
 *
 * Copyright 2001, Rik van Riel <riel@conectiva.com.br>
 * Released under the General Public License (GPL).
 *
 * Simple, low overhead reverse mapping scheme.
 * Please try to keep this thing as modular as possible.
 *
 * Provides methods for unmapping each kind of mapped page:
 * the anon methods track anonymous pages, and
 * the file methods track pages belonging to an inode.
 *
 * Original design by Rik van Riel <riel@conectiva.com.br> 2001
 * File methods by Dave McCracken <dmccr@us.ibm.com> 2003, 2004
 * Anonymous methods by Andrea Arcangeli <andrea@suse.de> 2004
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 * Contributions by Hugh Dickins 2003, 2004
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 */

/*
 * Lock ordering in mm:
 *
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 * inode->i_mutex	(while writing or truncating, not reading or faulting)
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 *   mm->mmap_sem
 *     page->flags PG_locked (lock_page)
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 *       hugetlbfs_i_mmap_rwsem_key (in huge_pmd_share)
 *         mapping->i_mmap_rwsem
 *           anon_vma->rwsem
 *             mm->page_table_lock or pte_lock
 *               zone->lru_lock (in mark_page_accessed, isolate_lru_page)
 *               swap_lock (in swap_duplicate, swap_info_get)
 *                 mmlist_lock (in mmput, drain_mmlist and others)
 *                 mapping->private_lock (in __set_page_dirty_buffers)
 *                   mem_cgroup_{begin,end}_page_stat (memcg->move_lock)
 *                     mapping->tree_lock (widely used)
 *                 inode->i_lock (in set_page_dirty's __mark_inode_dirty)
 *                 bdi.wb->list_lock (in set_page_dirty's __mark_inode_dirty)
 *                   sb_lock (within inode_lock in fs/fs-writeback.c)
 *                   mapping->tree_lock (widely used, in set_page_dirty,
 *                             in arch-dependent flush_dcache_mmap_lock,
 *                             within bdi.wb->list_lock in __sync_single_inode)
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 *
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 * anon_vma->rwsem,mapping->i_mutex      (memory_failure, collect_procs_anon)
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 *   ->tasklist_lock
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 *     pte map lock
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 */

#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/pagemap.h>
#include <linux/swap.h>
#include <linux/swapops.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
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#include <linux/ksm.h>
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#include <linux/rmap.h>
#include <linux/rcupdate.h>
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#include <linux/export.h>
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#include <linux/memcontrol.h>
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#include <linux/mmu_notifier.h>
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#include <linux/migrate.h>
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#include <linux/hugetlb.h>
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#include <linux/backing-dev.h>
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#include <linux/page_idle.h>
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#include <asm/tlbflush.h>

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#include <trace/events/tlb.h>

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#include "internal.h"

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static struct kmem_cache *anon_vma_cachep;
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static struct kmem_cache *anon_vma_chain_cachep;
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static inline struct anon_vma *anon_vma_alloc(void)
{
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	struct anon_vma *anon_vma;

	anon_vma = kmem_cache_alloc(anon_vma_cachep, GFP_KERNEL);
	if (anon_vma) {
		atomic_set(&anon_vma->refcount, 1);
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		anon_vma->degree = 1;	/* Reference for first vma */
		anon_vma->parent = anon_vma;
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		/*
		 * Initialise the anon_vma root to point to itself. If called
		 * from fork, the root will be reset to the parents anon_vma.
		 */
		anon_vma->root = anon_vma;
	}

	return anon_vma;
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}

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static inline void anon_vma_free(struct anon_vma *anon_vma)
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{
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	VM_BUG_ON(atomic_read(&anon_vma->refcount));
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	/*
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	 * Synchronize against page_lock_anon_vma_read() such that
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	 * we can safely hold the lock without the anon_vma getting
	 * freed.
	 *
	 * Relies on the full mb implied by the atomic_dec_and_test() from
	 * put_anon_vma() against the acquire barrier implied by
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	 * down_read_trylock() from page_lock_anon_vma_read(). This orders:
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	 *
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	 * page_lock_anon_vma_read()	VS	put_anon_vma()
	 *   down_read_trylock()		  atomic_dec_and_test()
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	 *   LOCK				  MB
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	 *   atomic_read()			  rwsem_is_locked()
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	 *
	 * LOCK should suffice since the actual taking of the lock must
	 * happen _before_ what follows.
	 */
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	might_sleep();
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	if (rwsem_is_locked(&anon_vma->root->rwsem)) {
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		anon_vma_lock_write(anon_vma);
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		anon_vma_unlock_write(anon_vma);
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	}

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	kmem_cache_free(anon_vma_cachep, anon_vma);
}
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static inline struct anon_vma_chain *anon_vma_chain_alloc(gfp_t gfp)
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{
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	return kmem_cache_alloc(anon_vma_chain_cachep, gfp);
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}

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static void anon_vma_chain_free(struct anon_vma_chain *anon_vma_chain)
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{
	kmem_cache_free(anon_vma_chain_cachep, anon_vma_chain);
}

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static void anon_vma_chain_link(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
				struct anon_vma_chain *avc,
				struct anon_vma *anon_vma)
{
	avc->vma = vma;
	avc->anon_vma = anon_vma;
	list_add(&avc->same_vma, &vma->anon_vma_chain);
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	anon_vma_interval_tree_insert(avc, &anon_vma->rb_root);
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}

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/**
 * anon_vma_prepare - attach an anon_vma to a memory region
 * @vma: the memory region in question
 *
 * This makes sure the memory mapping described by 'vma' has
 * an 'anon_vma' attached to it, so that we can associate the
 * anonymous pages mapped into it with that anon_vma.
 *
 * The common case will be that we already have one, but if
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 * not we either need to find an adjacent mapping that we
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 * can re-use the anon_vma from (very common when the only
 * reason for splitting a vma has been mprotect()), or we
 * allocate a new one.
 *
 * Anon-vma allocations are very subtle, because we may have
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 * optimistically looked up an anon_vma in page_lock_anon_vma_read()
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 * and that may actually touch the spinlock even in the newly
 * allocated vma (it depends on RCU to make sure that the
 * anon_vma isn't actually destroyed).
 *
 * As a result, we need to do proper anon_vma locking even
 * for the new allocation. At the same time, we do not want
 * to do any locking for the common case of already having
 * an anon_vma.
 *
 * This must be called with the mmap_sem held for reading.
 */
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int anon_vma_prepare(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
	struct anon_vma *anon_vma = vma->anon_vma;
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	struct anon_vma_chain *avc;
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	might_sleep();
	if (unlikely(!anon_vma)) {
		struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
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		struct anon_vma *allocated;
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		avc = anon_vma_chain_alloc(GFP_KERNEL);
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		if (!avc)
			goto out_enomem;

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		anon_vma = find_mergeable_anon_vma(vma);
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		allocated = NULL;
		if (!anon_vma) {
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			anon_vma = anon_vma_alloc();
			if (unlikely(!anon_vma))
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				goto out_enomem_free_avc;
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			allocated = anon_vma;
		}

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		anon_vma_lock_write(anon_vma);
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		/* page_table_lock to protect against threads */
		spin_lock(&mm->page_table_lock);
		if (likely(!vma->anon_vma)) {
			vma->anon_vma = anon_vma;
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			anon_vma_chain_link(vma, avc, anon_vma);
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			/* vma reference or self-parent link for new root */
			anon_vma->degree++;
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			allocated = NULL;
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			avc = NULL;
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		}
		spin_unlock(&mm->page_table_lock);
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		anon_vma_unlock_write(anon_vma);
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		if (unlikely(allocated))
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			put_anon_vma(allocated);
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		if (unlikely(avc))
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			anon_vma_chain_free(avc);
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	}
	return 0;
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 out_enomem_free_avc:
	anon_vma_chain_free(avc);
 out_enomem:
	return -ENOMEM;
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}

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/*
 * This is a useful helper function for locking the anon_vma root as
 * we traverse the vma->anon_vma_chain, looping over anon_vma's that
 * have the same vma.
 *
 * Such anon_vma's should have the same root, so you'd expect to see
 * just a single mutex_lock for the whole traversal.
 */
static inline struct anon_vma *lock_anon_vma_root(struct anon_vma *root, struct anon_vma *anon_vma)
{
	struct anon_vma *new_root = anon_vma->root;
	if (new_root != root) {
		if (WARN_ON_ONCE(root))
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			up_write(&root->rwsem);
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		root = new_root;
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		down_write(&root->rwsem);
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	}
	return root;
}

static inline void unlock_anon_vma_root(struct anon_vma *root)
{
	if (root)
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		up_write(&root->rwsem);
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}

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/*
 * Attach the anon_vmas from src to dst.
 * Returns 0 on success, -ENOMEM on failure.
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 *
 * If dst->anon_vma is NULL this function tries to find and reuse existing
 * anon_vma which has no vmas and only one child anon_vma. This prevents
 * degradation of anon_vma hierarchy to endless linear chain in case of
 * constantly forking task. On the other hand, an anon_vma with more than one
 * child isn't reused even if there was no alive vma, thus rmap walker has a
 * good chance of avoiding scanning the whole hierarchy when it searches where
 * page is mapped.
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 */
int anon_vma_clone(struct vm_area_struct *dst, struct vm_area_struct *src)
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{
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	struct anon_vma_chain *avc, *pavc;
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	struct anon_vma *root = NULL;
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	list_for_each_entry_reverse(pavc, &src->anon_vma_chain, same_vma) {
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		struct anon_vma *anon_vma;

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		avc = anon_vma_chain_alloc(GFP_NOWAIT | __GFP_NOWARN);
		if (unlikely(!avc)) {
			unlock_anon_vma_root(root);
			root = NULL;
			avc = anon_vma_chain_alloc(GFP_KERNEL);
			if (!avc)
				goto enomem_failure;
		}
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		anon_vma = pavc->anon_vma;
		root = lock_anon_vma_root(root, anon_vma);
		anon_vma_chain_link(dst, avc, anon_vma);
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		/*
		 * Reuse existing anon_vma if its degree lower than two,
		 * that means it has no vma and only one anon_vma child.
		 *
		 * Do not chose parent anon_vma, otherwise first child
		 * will always reuse it. Root anon_vma is never reused:
		 * it has self-parent reference and at least one child.
		 */
		if (!dst->anon_vma && anon_vma != src->anon_vma &&
				anon_vma->degree < 2)
			dst->anon_vma = anon_vma;
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	}
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	if (dst->anon_vma)
		dst->anon_vma->degree++;
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	unlock_anon_vma_root(root);
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	return 0;
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 enomem_failure:
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	/*
	 * dst->anon_vma is dropped here otherwise its degree can be incorrectly
	 * decremented in unlink_anon_vmas().
	 * We can safely do this because callers of anon_vma_clone() don't care
	 * about dst->anon_vma if anon_vma_clone() failed.
	 */
	dst->anon_vma = NULL;
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	unlink_anon_vmas(dst);
	return -ENOMEM;
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}

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/*
 * Attach vma to its own anon_vma, as well as to the anon_vmas that
 * the corresponding VMA in the parent process is attached to.
 * Returns 0 on success, non-zero on failure.
 */
int anon_vma_fork(struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct vm_area_struct *pvma)
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{
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	struct anon_vma_chain *avc;
	struct anon_vma *anon_vma;
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	int error;
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	/* Don't bother if the parent process has no anon_vma here. */
	if (!pvma->anon_vma)
		return 0;

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	/* Drop inherited anon_vma, we'll reuse existing or allocate new. */
	vma->anon_vma = NULL;

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	/*
	 * First, attach the new VMA to the parent VMA's anon_vmas,
	 * so rmap can find non-COWed pages in child processes.
	 */
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	error = anon_vma_clone(vma, pvma);
	if (error)
		return error;
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	/* An existing anon_vma has been reused, all done then. */
	if (vma->anon_vma)
		return 0;

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	/* Then add our own anon_vma. */
	anon_vma = anon_vma_alloc();
	if (!anon_vma)
		goto out_error;
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	avc = anon_vma_chain_alloc(GFP_KERNEL);
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	if (!avc)
		goto out_error_free_anon_vma;
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	/*
	 * The root anon_vma's spinlock is the lock actually used when we
	 * lock any of the anon_vmas in this anon_vma tree.
	 */
	anon_vma->root = pvma->anon_vma->root;
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	anon_vma->parent = pvma->anon_vma;
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	/*
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	 * With refcounts, an anon_vma can stay around longer than the
	 * process it belongs to. The root anon_vma needs to be pinned until
	 * this anon_vma is freed, because the lock lives in the root.
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	 */
	get_anon_vma(anon_vma->root);
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	/* Mark this anon_vma as the one where our new (COWed) pages go. */
	vma->anon_vma = anon_vma;
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	anon_vma_lock_write(anon_vma);
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	anon_vma_chain_link(vma, avc, anon_vma);
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	anon_vma->parent->degree++;
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	anon_vma_unlock_write(anon_vma);
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	return 0;

 out_error_free_anon_vma:
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	put_anon_vma(anon_vma);
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 out_error:
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	unlink_anon_vmas(vma);
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	return -ENOMEM;
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}

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void unlink_anon_vmas(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
	struct anon_vma_chain *avc, *next;
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	struct anon_vma *root = NULL;
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	/*
	 * Unlink each anon_vma chained to the VMA.  This list is ordered
	 * from newest to oldest, ensuring the root anon_vma gets freed last.
	 */
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	list_for_each_entry_safe(avc, next, &vma->anon_vma_chain, same_vma) {
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		struct anon_vma *anon_vma = avc->anon_vma;

		root = lock_anon_vma_root(root, anon_vma);
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		anon_vma_interval_tree_remove(avc, &anon_vma->rb_root);
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		/*
		 * Leave empty anon_vmas on the list - we'll need
		 * to free them outside the lock.
		 */
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		if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&anon_vma->rb_root)) {
			anon_vma->parent->degree--;
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			continue;
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		}
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		list_del(&avc->same_vma);
		anon_vma_chain_free(avc);
	}
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	if (vma->anon_vma)
		vma->anon_vma->degree--;
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	unlock_anon_vma_root(root);

	/*
	 * Iterate the list once more, it now only contains empty and unlinked
	 * anon_vmas, destroy them. Could not do before due to __put_anon_vma()
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	 * needing to write-acquire the anon_vma->root->rwsem.
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	 */
	list_for_each_entry_safe(avc, next, &vma->anon_vma_chain, same_vma) {
		struct anon_vma *anon_vma = avc->anon_vma;

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		VM_WARN_ON(anon_vma->degree);
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		put_anon_vma(anon_vma);

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		list_del(&avc->same_vma);
		anon_vma_chain_free(avc);
	}
}

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static void anon_vma_ctor(void *data)
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{
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	struct anon_vma *anon_vma = data;
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	init_rwsem(&anon_vma->rwsem);
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	atomic_set(&anon_vma->refcount, 0);
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	anon_vma->rb_root = RB_ROOT;
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}

void __init anon_vma_init(void)
{
	anon_vma_cachep = kmem_cache_create("anon_vma", sizeof(struct anon_vma),
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			0, SLAB_DESTROY_BY_RCU|SLAB_PANIC|SLAB_ACCOUNT,
			anon_vma_ctor);
	anon_vma_chain_cachep = KMEM_CACHE(anon_vma_chain,
			SLAB_PANIC|SLAB_ACCOUNT);
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}

/*
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 * Getting a lock on a stable anon_vma from a page off the LRU is tricky!
 *
 * Since there is no serialization what so ever against page_remove_rmap()
 * the best this function can do is return a locked anon_vma that might
 * have been relevant to this page.
 *
 * The page might have been remapped to a different anon_vma or the anon_vma
 * returned may already be freed (and even reused).
 *
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 * In case it was remapped to a different anon_vma, the new anon_vma will be a
 * child of the old anon_vma, and the anon_vma lifetime rules will therefore
 * ensure that any anon_vma obtained from the page will still be valid for as
 * long as we observe page_mapped() [ hence all those page_mapped() tests ].
 *
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 * All users of this function must be very careful when walking the anon_vma
 * chain and verify that the page in question is indeed mapped in it
 * [ something equivalent to page_mapped_in_vma() ].
 *
 * Since anon_vma's slab is DESTROY_BY_RCU and we know from page_remove_rmap()
 * that the anon_vma pointer from page->mapping is valid if there is a
 * mapcount, we can dereference the anon_vma after observing those.
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 */
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struct anon_vma *page_get_anon_vma(struct page *page)
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{
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	struct anon_vma *anon_vma = NULL;
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	unsigned long anon_mapping;

	rcu_read_lock();
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	anon_mapping = (unsigned long)READ_ONCE(page->mapping);
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	if ((anon_mapping & PAGE_MAPPING_FLAGS) != PAGE_MAPPING_ANON)
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		goto out;
	if (!page_mapped(page))
		goto out;

	anon_vma = (struct anon_vma *) (anon_mapping - PAGE_MAPPING_ANON);
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	if (!atomic_inc_not_zero(&anon_vma->refcount)) {
		anon_vma = NULL;
		goto out;
	}
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	/*
	 * If this page is still mapped, then its anon_vma cannot have been
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	 * freed.  But if it has been unmapped, we have no security against the
	 * anon_vma structure being freed and reused (for another anon_vma:
	 * SLAB_DESTROY_BY_RCU guarantees that - so the atomic_inc_not_zero()
	 * above cannot corrupt).
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	 */
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	if (!page_mapped(page)) {
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		rcu_read_unlock();
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		put_anon_vma(anon_vma);
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		return NULL;
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	}
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out:
	rcu_read_unlock();
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	return anon_vma;
}

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/*
 * Similar to page_get_anon_vma() except it locks the anon_vma.
 *
 * Its a little more complex as it tries to keep the fast path to a single
 * atomic op -- the trylock. If we fail the trylock, we fall back to getting a
 * reference like with page_get_anon_vma() and then block on the mutex.
 */
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struct anon_vma *page_lock_anon_vma_read(struct page *page)
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{
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	struct anon_vma *anon_vma = NULL;
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	struct anon_vma *root_anon_vma;
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	unsigned long anon_mapping;
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	rcu_read_lock();
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	anon_mapping = (unsigned long)READ_ONCE(page->mapping);
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	if ((anon_mapping & PAGE_MAPPING_FLAGS) != PAGE_MAPPING_ANON)
		goto out;
	if (!page_mapped(page))
		goto out;

	anon_vma = (struct anon_vma *) (anon_mapping - PAGE_MAPPING_ANON);
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	root_anon_vma = READ_ONCE(anon_vma->root);
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	if (down_read_trylock(&root_anon_vma->rwsem)) {
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		/*
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		 * If the page is still mapped, then this anon_vma is still
		 * its anon_vma, and holding the mutex ensures that it will
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		 * not go away, see anon_vma_free().
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		 */
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		if (!page_mapped(page)) {
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			up_read(&root_anon_vma->rwsem);
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			anon_vma = NULL;
		}
		goto out;
	}
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	/* trylock failed, we got to sleep */
	if (!atomic_inc_not_zero(&anon_vma->refcount)) {
		anon_vma = NULL;
		goto out;
	}

	if (!page_mapped(page)) {
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		rcu_read_unlock();
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		put_anon_vma(anon_vma);
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		return NULL;
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	}

	/* we pinned the anon_vma, its safe to sleep */
	rcu_read_unlock();
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	anon_vma_lock_read(anon_vma);
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	if (atomic_dec_and_test(&anon_vma->refcount)) {
		/*
		 * Oops, we held the last refcount, release the lock
		 * and bail -- can't simply use put_anon_vma() because
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		 * we'll deadlock on the anon_vma_lock_write() recursion.
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		 */
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		anon_vma_unlock_read(anon_vma);
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		__put_anon_vma(anon_vma);
		anon_vma = NULL;
	}

	return anon_vma;

out:
	rcu_read_unlock();
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	return anon_vma;
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}

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void page_unlock_anon_vma_read(struct anon_vma *anon_vma)
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{
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	anon_vma_unlock_read(anon_vma);
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}

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#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_WANT_BATCHED_UNMAP_TLB_FLUSH
/*
 * Flush TLB entries for recently unmapped pages from remote CPUs. It is
 * important if a PTE was dirty when it was unmapped that it's flushed
 * before any IO is initiated on the page to prevent lost writes. Similarly,
 * it must be flushed before freeing to prevent data leakage.
 */
void try_to_unmap_flush(void)
{
	struct tlbflush_unmap_batch *tlb_ubc = &current->tlb_ubc;
	int cpu;

	if (!tlb_ubc->flush_required)
		return;

	cpu = get_cpu();

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	if (cpumask_test_cpu(cpu, &tlb_ubc->cpumask)) {
		count_vm_tlb_event(NR_TLB_LOCAL_FLUSH_ALL);
		local_flush_tlb();
		trace_tlb_flush(TLB_LOCAL_SHOOTDOWN, TLB_FLUSH_ALL);
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	}
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	if (cpumask_any_but(&tlb_ubc->cpumask, cpu) < nr_cpu_ids)
		flush_tlb_others(&tlb_ubc->cpumask, NULL, 0, TLB_FLUSH_ALL);
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	cpumask_clear(&tlb_ubc->cpumask);
	tlb_ubc->flush_required = false;
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	tlb_ubc->writable = false;
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	put_cpu();
}

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/* Flush iff there are potentially writable TLB entries that can race with IO */
void try_to_unmap_flush_dirty(void)
{
	struct tlbflush_unmap_batch *tlb_ubc = &current->tlb_ubc;

	if (tlb_ubc->writable)
		try_to_unmap_flush();
}

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static void set_tlb_ubc_flush_pending(struct mm_struct *mm,
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		struct page *page, bool writable)
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{
	struct tlbflush_unmap_batch *tlb_ubc = &current->tlb_ubc;

	cpumask_or(&tlb_ubc->cpumask, &tlb_ubc->cpumask, mm_cpumask(mm));
	tlb_ubc->flush_required = true;
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	/*
	 * If the PTE was dirty then it's best to assume it's writable. The
	 * caller must use try_to_unmap_flush_dirty() or try_to_unmap_flush()
	 * before the page is queued for IO.
	 */
	if (writable)
		tlb_ubc->writable = true;
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}

/*
 * Returns true if the TLB flush should be deferred to the end of a batch of
 * unmap operations to reduce IPIs.
 */
static bool should_defer_flush(struct mm_struct *mm, enum ttu_flags flags)
{
	bool should_defer = false;

	if (!(flags & TTU_BATCH_FLUSH))
		return false;

	/* If remote CPUs need to be flushed then defer batch the flush */
	if (cpumask_any_but(mm_cpumask(mm), get_cpu()) < nr_cpu_ids)
		should_defer = true;
	put_cpu();

	return should_defer;
}
#else
static void set_tlb_ubc_flush_pending(struct mm_struct *mm,
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		struct page *page, bool writable)
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{
}

static bool should_defer_flush(struct mm_struct *mm, enum ttu_flags flags)
{
	return false;
}
#endif /* CONFIG_ARCH_WANT_BATCHED_UNMAP_TLB_FLUSH */

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/*
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 * At what user virtual address is page expected in vma?
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 * Caller should check the page is actually part of the vma.
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 */
unsigned long page_address_in_vma(struct page *page, struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
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	unsigned long address;
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	if (PageAnon(page)) {
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		struct anon_vma *page__anon_vma = page_anon_vma(page);
		/*
		 * Note: swapoff's unuse_vma() is more efficient with this
		 * check, and needs it to match anon_vma when KSM is active.
		 */
		if (!vma->anon_vma || !page__anon_vma ||
		    vma->anon_vma->root != page__anon_vma->root)
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			return -EFAULT;
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	} else if (page->mapping) {
		if (!vma->vm_file || vma->vm_file->f_mapping != page->mapping)
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			return -EFAULT;
	} else
		return -EFAULT;
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	address = __vma_address(page, vma);
	if (unlikely(address < vma->vm_start || address >= vma->vm_end))
		return -EFAULT;
	return address;
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}

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pmd_t *mm_find_pmd(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long address)
{
	pgd_t *pgd;
	pud_t *pud;
	pmd_t *pmd = NULL;
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	pmd_t pmde;
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	pgd = pgd_offset(mm, address);
	if (!pgd_present(*pgd))
		goto out;

	pud = pud_offset(pgd, address);
	if (!pud_present(*pud))
		goto out;

	pmd = pmd_offset(pud, address);
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	/*
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	 * Some THP functions use the sequence pmdp_huge_clear_flush(), set_pmd_at()
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	 * without holding anon_vma lock for write.  So when looking for a
	 * genuine pmde (in which to find pte), test present and !THP together.
	 */
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	pmde = *pmd;
	barrier();
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	if (!pmd_present(pmde) || pmd_trans_huge(pmde))
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		pmd = NULL;
out:
	return pmd;
}

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/*
 * Check that @page is mapped at @address into @mm.
 *
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 * If @sync is false, page_check_address may perform a racy check to avoid
 * the page table lock when the pte is not present (helpful when reclaiming
 * highly shared pages).
 *
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 * On success returns with pte mapped and locked.
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 */
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pte_t *__page_check_address(struct page *page, struct mm_struct *mm,
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			  unsigned long address, spinlock_t **ptlp, int sync)
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{
	pmd_t *pmd;
	pte_t *pte;
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	spinlock_t *ptl;
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	if (unlikely(PageHuge(page))) {
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		/* when pud is not present, pte will be NULL */
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		pte = huge_pte_offset(mm, address);
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		if (!pte)
			return NULL;

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		ptl = huge_pte_lockptr(page_hstate(page), mm, pte);
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		goto check;
	}

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	pmd = mm_find_pmd(mm, address);
	if (!pmd)
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		return NULL;

	pte = pte_offset_map(pmd, address);
	/* Make a quick check before getting the lock */
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	if (!sync && !pte_present(*pte)) {
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		pte_unmap(pte);
		return NULL;
	}

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	ptl = pte_lockptr(mm, pmd);
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check:
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	spin_lock(ptl);
	if (pte_present(*pte) && page_to_pfn(page) == pte_pfn(*pte)) {
		*ptlp = ptl;
		return pte;
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	}
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	pte_unmap_unlock(pte, ptl);
	return NULL;
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}

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/**
 * page_mapped_in_vma - check whether a page is really mapped in a VMA
 * @page: the page to test
 * @vma: the VMA to test
 *
 * Returns 1 if the page is mapped into the page tables of the VMA, 0
 * if the page is not mapped into the page tables of this VMA.  Only
 * valid for normal file or anonymous VMAs.
 */
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int page_mapped_in_vma(struct page *page, struct vm_area_struct *vma)
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{
	unsigned long address;
	pte_t *pte;
	spinlock_t *ptl;

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	address = __vma_address(page, vma);
	if (unlikely(address < vma->vm_start || address >= vma->vm_end))
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		return 0;
	pte = page_check_address(page, vma->vm_mm, address, &ptl, 1);
	if (!pte)			/* the page is not in this mm */
		return 0;
	pte_unmap_unlock(pte, ptl);

	return 1;
}

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#ifdef CONFIG_TRANSPARENT_HUGEPAGE
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/*
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 * Check that @page is mapped at @address into @mm. In contrast to
 * page_check_address(), this function can handle transparent huge pages.
 *
 * On success returns true with pte mapped and locked. For PMD-mapped
 * transparent huge pages *@ptep is set to NULL.
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 */
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bool page_check_address_transhuge(struct page *page, struct mm_struct *mm,
				  unsigned long address, pmd_t **pmdp,
				  pte_t **ptep, spinlock_t **ptlp)
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{
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	pgd_t *pgd;
	pud_t *pud;
	pmd_t *pmd;
	pte_t *pte;
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	spinlock_t *ptl;
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	if (unlikely(PageHuge(page))) {
		/* when pud is not present, pte will be NULL */
		pte = huge_pte_offset(mm, address);
		if (!pte)
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			return false;
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		ptl = huge_pte_lockptr(page_hstate(page), mm, pte);
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		pmd = NULL;
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		goto check_pte;
	}

	pgd = pgd_offset(mm, address);
	if (!pgd_present(*pgd))
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		return false;
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	pud = pud_offset(pgd, address);
	if (!pud_present(*pud))
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		return false;
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	pmd = pmd_offset(pud, address);

	if (pmd_trans_huge(*pmd)) {
		ptl = pmd_lock(mm, pmd);
		if (!pmd_present(*pmd))
			goto unlock_pmd;
		if (unlikely(!pmd_trans_huge(*pmd))) {
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			spin_unlock(ptl);
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			goto map_pte;
		}

		if (pmd_page(*pmd) != page)
			goto unlock_pmd;

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		pte = NULL;
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		goto found;
unlock_pmd:
		spin_unlock(ptl);
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		return false;
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	} else {
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		pmd_t pmde = *pmd;
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		barrier();
		if (!pmd_present(pmde) || pmd_trans_huge(pmde))
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			return false;
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	}
map_pte:
	pte = pte_offset_map(pmd, address);
	if (!pte_present(*pte)) {
		pte_unmap(pte);
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		return false;
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	}
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	ptl = pte_lockptr(mm, pmd);
check_pte:
	spin_lock(ptl);
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	if (!pte_present(*pte)) {
		pte_unmap_unlock(pte, ptl);
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		return false;
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	}

	/* THP can be referenced by any subpage */
	if (pte_pfn(*pte) - page_to_pfn(page) >= hpage_nr_pages(page)) {
		pte_unmap_unlock(pte, ptl);
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		return false;
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	}
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found:
	*ptep = pte;
	*pmdp = pmd;
	*ptlp = ptl;
	return true;
}
#endif /* CONFIG_TRANSPARENT_HUGEPAGE */

struct page_referenced_arg {
	int mapcount;
	int referenced;
	unsigned long vm_flags;
	struct mem_cgroup *memcg;
};
/*
 * arg: page_referenced_arg will be passed
 */
static int page_referenced_one(struct page *page, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
			unsigned long address, void *arg)
{
	struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
	struct page_referenced_arg *pra = arg;
	pmd_t *pmd;
	pte_t *pte;
	spinlock_t *ptl;
	int referenced = 0;

	if (!page_check_address_transhuge(page, mm, address, &pmd, &pte, &ptl))
		return SWAP_AGAIN;
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	if (vma->vm_flags & VM_LOCKED) {
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		if (pte)
			pte_unmap(pte);
		spin_unlock(ptl);
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		pra->vm_flags |= VM_LOCKED;
		return SWAP_FAIL; /* To break the loop */
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	}

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	if (pte) {
		if (ptep_clear_flush_young_notify(vma, address, pte)) {
			/*
			 * Don't treat a reference through a sequentially read
			 * mapping as such.  If the page has been used in
			 * another mapping, we will catch it; if this other
			 * mapping is already gone, the unmap path will have
			 * set PG_referenced or activated the page.
			 */
			if (likely(!(vma->vm_flags & VM_SEQ_READ)))
				referenced++;
		}
		pte_unmap(pte);
	} else if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_TRANSPARENT_HUGEPAGE)) {
		if (pmdp_clear_flush_young_notify(vma, address, pmd))
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			referenced++;
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	} else {
		/* unexpected pmd-mapped page? */
		WARN_ON_ONCE(1);
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	}
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	spin_unlock(ptl);
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	if (referenced)
		clear_page_idle(page);
	if (test_and_clear_page_young(page))
		referenced++;

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	if (referenced) {
		pra->referenced++;
		pra->vm_flags |= vma->vm_flags;
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	}
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	pra->mapcount--;
	if (!pra->mapcount)
		return SWAP_SUCCESS; /* To break the loop */

	return SWAP_AGAIN;
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}

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static bool invalid_page_referenced_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma, void *arg)
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{
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	struct page_referenced_arg *pra = arg;
	struct mem_cgroup *memcg = pra->memcg;
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	if (!mm_match_cgroup(vma->vm_mm, memcg))
		return true;
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	return false;
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}

/**
 * page_referenced - test if the page was referenced
 * @page: the page to test
 * @is_locked: caller holds lock on the page
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 * @memcg: target memory cgroup
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 * @vm_flags: collect encountered vma->vm_flags who actually referenced the page
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 *
 * Quick test_and_clear_referenced for all mappings to a page,
 * returns the number of ptes which referenced the page.
 */
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int page_referenced(struct page *page,
		    int is_locked,
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		    struct mem_cgroup *memcg,
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		    unsigned long *vm_flags)
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{
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	int ret;
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	int we_locked = 0;
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	struct page_referenced_arg pra = {
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		.mapcount = total_mapcount(page),
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		.memcg = memcg,
	};
	struct rmap_walk_control rwc = {
		.rmap_one = page_referenced_one,
		.arg = (void *)&pra,
		.anon_lock = page_lock_anon_vma_read,
	};
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	*vm_flags = 0;
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	if (!page_mapped(page))
		return 0;

	if (!page_rmapping(page))
		return 0;

	if (!is_locked && (!PageAnon(page) || PageKsm(page))) {
		we_locked = trylock_page(page);
		if (!we_locked)
			return 1;
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	}
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	/*
	 * If we are reclaiming on behalf of a cgroup, skip
	 * counting on behalf of references from different
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