memory.c 20.2 KB
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// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
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/*
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 * Memory subsystem support
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 *
 * Written by Matt Tolentino <matthew.e.tolentino@intel.com>
 *            Dave Hansen <haveblue@us.ibm.com>
 *
 * This file provides the necessary infrastructure to represent
 * a SPARSEMEM-memory-model system's physical memory in /sysfs.
 * All arch-independent code that assumes MEMORY_HOTPLUG requires
 * SPARSEMEM should be contained here, or in mm/memory_hotplug.c.
 */

#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/topology.h>
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#include <linux/capability.h>
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#include <linux/device.h>
#include <linux/memory.h>
#include <linux/memory_hotplug.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
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#include <linux/mutex.h>
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#include <linux/stat.h>
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#include <linux/slab.h>
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#include <linux/atomic.h>
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#include <linux/uaccess.h>
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static DEFINE_MUTEX(mem_sysfs_mutex);

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#define MEMORY_CLASS_NAME	"memory"
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#define to_memory_block(dev) container_of(dev, struct memory_block, dev)

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static int sections_per_block;

static inline int base_memory_block_id(int section_nr)
{
	return section_nr / sections_per_block;
}
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static int memory_subsys_online(struct device *dev);
static int memory_subsys_offline(struct device *dev);

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static struct bus_type memory_subsys = {
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	.name = MEMORY_CLASS_NAME,
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	.dev_name = MEMORY_CLASS_NAME,
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	.online = memory_subsys_online,
	.offline = memory_subsys_offline,
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};

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static BLOCKING_NOTIFIER_HEAD(memory_chain);
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int register_memory_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
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{
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	return blocking_notifier_chain_register(&memory_chain, nb);
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}
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(register_memory_notifier);
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void unregister_memory_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
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{
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	blocking_notifier_chain_unregister(&memory_chain, nb);
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}
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(unregister_memory_notifier);
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static ATOMIC_NOTIFIER_HEAD(memory_isolate_chain);

int register_memory_isolate_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
{
	return atomic_notifier_chain_register(&memory_isolate_chain, nb);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(register_memory_isolate_notifier);

void unregister_memory_isolate_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
{
	atomic_notifier_chain_unregister(&memory_isolate_chain, nb);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(unregister_memory_isolate_notifier);

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static void memory_block_release(struct device *dev)
{
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	struct memory_block *mem = to_memory_block(dev);
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	kfree(mem);
}

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unsigned long __weak memory_block_size_bytes(void)
{
	return MIN_MEMORY_BLOCK_SIZE;
}

static unsigned long get_memory_block_size(void)
{
	unsigned long block_sz;

	block_sz = memory_block_size_bytes();

	/* Validate blk_sz is a power of 2 and not less than section size */
	if ((block_sz & (block_sz - 1)) || (block_sz < MIN_MEMORY_BLOCK_SIZE)) {
		WARN_ON(1);
		block_sz = MIN_MEMORY_BLOCK_SIZE;
	}

	return block_sz;
}

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/*
 * use this as the physical section index that this memsection
 * uses.
 */

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static ssize_t show_mem_start_phys_index(struct device *dev,
			struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
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{
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	struct memory_block *mem = to_memory_block(dev);
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	unsigned long phys_index;

	phys_index = mem->start_section_nr / sections_per_block;
	return sprintf(buf, "%08lx\n", phys_index);
}

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/*
 * Show whether the section of memory is likely to be hot-removable
 */
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static ssize_t show_mem_removable(struct device *dev,
			struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
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{
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	unsigned long i, pfn;
	int ret = 1;
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	struct memory_block *mem = to_memory_block(dev);
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	if (mem->state != MEM_ONLINE)
		goto out;

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	for (i = 0; i < sections_per_block; i++) {
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		if (!present_section_nr(mem->start_section_nr + i))
			continue;
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		pfn = section_nr_to_pfn(mem->start_section_nr + i);
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		ret &= is_mem_section_removable(pfn, PAGES_PER_SECTION);
	}

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out:
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	return sprintf(buf, "%d\n", ret);
}

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/*
 * online, offline, going offline, etc.
 */
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static ssize_t show_mem_state(struct device *dev,
			struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
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{
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	struct memory_block *mem = to_memory_block(dev);
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	ssize_t len = 0;

	/*
	 * We can probably put these states in a nice little array
	 * so that they're not open-coded
	 */
	switch (mem->state) {
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	case MEM_ONLINE:
		len = sprintf(buf, "online\n");
		break;
	case MEM_OFFLINE:
		len = sprintf(buf, "offline\n");
		break;
	case MEM_GOING_OFFLINE:
		len = sprintf(buf, "going-offline\n");
		break;
	default:
		len = sprintf(buf, "ERROR-UNKNOWN-%ld\n",
				mem->state);
		WARN_ON(1);
		break;
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	}

	return len;
}

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int memory_notify(unsigned long val, void *v)
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{
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	return blocking_notifier_call_chain(&memory_chain, val, v);
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}

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int memory_isolate_notify(unsigned long val, void *v)
{
	return atomic_notifier_call_chain(&memory_isolate_chain, val, v);
}

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/*
 * The probe routines leave the pages reserved, just as the bootmem code does.
 * Make sure they're still that way.
 */
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static bool pages_correctly_reserved(unsigned long start_pfn)
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{
	int i, j;
	struct page *page;
	unsigned long pfn = start_pfn;

	/*
	 * memmap between sections is not contiguous except with
	 * SPARSEMEM_VMEMMAP. We lookup the page once per section
	 * and assume memmap is contiguous within each section
	 */
	for (i = 0; i < sections_per_block; i++, pfn += PAGES_PER_SECTION) {
		if (WARN_ON_ONCE(!pfn_valid(pfn)))
			return false;
		page = pfn_to_page(pfn);

		for (j = 0; j < PAGES_PER_SECTION; j++) {
			if (PageReserved(page + j))
				continue;

			printk(KERN_WARNING "section number %ld page number %d "
				"not reserved, was it already online?\n",
				pfn_to_section_nr(pfn), j);

			return false;
		}
	}

	return true;
}

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/*
 * MEMORY_HOTPLUG depends on SPARSEMEM in mm/Kconfig, so it is
 * OK to have direct references to sparsemem variables in here.
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 * Must already be protected by mem_hotplug_begin().
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 */
static int
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memory_block_action(unsigned long phys_index, unsigned long action, int online_type)
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{
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	unsigned long start_pfn;
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	unsigned long nr_pages = PAGES_PER_SECTION * sections_per_block;
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	int ret;

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	start_pfn = section_nr_to_pfn(phys_index);
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	switch (action) {
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	case MEM_ONLINE:
		if (!pages_correctly_reserved(start_pfn))
			return -EBUSY;

		ret = online_pages(start_pfn, nr_pages, online_type);
		break;
	case MEM_OFFLINE:
		ret = offline_pages(start_pfn, nr_pages);
		break;
	default:
		WARN(1, KERN_WARNING "%s(%ld, %ld) unknown action: "
		     "%ld\n", __func__, phys_index, action, action);
		ret = -EINVAL;
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	}

	return ret;
}

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static int memory_block_change_state(struct memory_block *mem,
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		unsigned long to_state, unsigned long from_state_req)
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{
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	int ret = 0;
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	if (mem->state != from_state_req)
		return -EINVAL;
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	if (to_state == MEM_OFFLINE)
		mem->state = MEM_GOING_OFFLINE;

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	ret = memory_block_action(mem->start_section_nr, to_state,
				mem->online_type);

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	mem->state = ret ? from_state_req : to_state;
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	return ret;
}
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/* The device lock serializes operations on memory_subsys_[online|offline] */
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static int memory_subsys_online(struct device *dev)
{
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	struct memory_block *mem = to_memory_block(dev);
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	int ret;
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	if (mem->state == MEM_ONLINE)
		return 0;
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	/*
	 * If we are called from store_mem_state(), online_type will be
	 * set >= 0 Otherwise we were called from the device online
	 * attribute and need to set the online_type.
	 */
	if (mem->online_type < 0)
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		mem->online_type = MMOP_ONLINE_KEEP;
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	/* Already under protection of mem_hotplug_begin() */
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	ret = memory_block_change_state(mem, MEM_ONLINE, MEM_OFFLINE);
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	/* clear online_type */
	mem->online_type = -1;
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	return ret;
}

static int memory_subsys_offline(struct device *dev)
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{
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	struct memory_block *mem = to_memory_block(dev);
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	if (mem->state == MEM_OFFLINE)
		return 0;
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	/* Can't offline block with non-present sections */
	if (mem->section_count != sections_per_block)
		return -EINVAL;

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	return memory_block_change_state(mem, MEM_OFFLINE, MEM_ONLINE);
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}
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static ssize_t
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store_mem_state(struct device *dev,
		struct device_attribute *attr, const char *buf, size_t count)
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{
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	struct memory_block *mem = to_memory_block(dev);
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	int ret, online_type;
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	ret = lock_device_hotplug_sysfs();
	if (ret)
		return ret;
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	if (sysfs_streq(buf, "online_kernel"))
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		online_type = MMOP_ONLINE_KERNEL;
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	else if (sysfs_streq(buf, "online_movable"))
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		online_type = MMOP_ONLINE_MOVABLE;
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	else if (sysfs_streq(buf, "online"))
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		online_type = MMOP_ONLINE_KEEP;
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	else if (sysfs_streq(buf, "offline"))
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		online_type = MMOP_OFFLINE;
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	else {
		ret = -EINVAL;
		goto err;
	}
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	/*
	 * Memory hotplug needs to hold mem_hotplug_begin() for probe to find
	 * the correct memory block to online before doing device_online(dev),
	 * which will take dev->mutex.  Take the lock early to prevent an
	 * inversion, memory_subsys_online() callbacks will be implemented by
	 * assuming it's already protected.
	 */
	mem_hotplug_begin();

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	switch (online_type) {
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	case MMOP_ONLINE_KERNEL:
	case MMOP_ONLINE_MOVABLE:
	case MMOP_ONLINE_KEEP:
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		mem->online_type = online_type;
		ret = device_online(&mem->dev);
		break;
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	case MMOP_OFFLINE:
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		ret = device_offline(&mem->dev);
		break;
	default:
		ret = -EINVAL; /* should never happen */
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	}

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	mem_hotplug_done();
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err:
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	unlock_device_hotplug();
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	if (ret < 0)
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		return ret;
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	if (ret)
		return -EINVAL;

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	return count;
}

/*
 * phys_device is a bad name for this.  What I really want
 * is a way to differentiate between memory ranges that
 * are part of physical devices that constitute
 * a complete removable unit or fru.
 * i.e. do these ranges belong to the same physical device,
 * s.t. if I offline all of these sections I can then
 * remove the physical device?
 */
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static ssize_t show_phys_device(struct device *dev,
				struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
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{
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	struct memory_block *mem = to_memory_block(dev);
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	return sprintf(buf, "%d\n", mem->phys_device);
}

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#ifdef CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTREMOVE
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static void print_allowed_zone(char *buf, int nid, unsigned long start_pfn,
		unsigned long nr_pages, int online_type,
		struct zone *default_zone)
{
	struct zone *zone;

	zone = zone_for_pfn_range(online_type, nid, start_pfn, nr_pages);
	if (zone != default_zone) {
		strcat(buf, " ");
		strcat(buf, zone->name);
	}
}

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static ssize_t show_valid_zones(struct device *dev,
				struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
{
	struct memory_block *mem = to_memory_block(dev);
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	unsigned long start_pfn = section_nr_to_pfn(mem->start_section_nr);
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	unsigned long nr_pages = PAGES_PER_SECTION * sections_per_block;
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	unsigned long valid_start_pfn, valid_end_pfn;
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	struct zone *default_zone;
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	int nid;
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	/*
	 * The block contains more than one zone can not be offlined.
	 * This can happen e.g. for ZONE_DMA and ZONE_DMA32
	 */
	if (!test_pages_in_a_zone(start_pfn, start_pfn + nr_pages, &valid_start_pfn, &valid_end_pfn))
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		return sprintf(buf, "none\n");

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	start_pfn = valid_start_pfn;
	nr_pages = valid_end_pfn - start_pfn;
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	/*
	 * Check the existing zone. Make sure that we do that only on the
	 * online nodes otherwise the page_zone is not reliable
	 */
	if (mem->state == MEM_ONLINE) {
		strcat(buf, page_zone(pfn_to_page(start_pfn))->name);
		goto out;
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	}

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	nid = pfn_to_nid(start_pfn);
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	default_zone = zone_for_pfn_range(MMOP_ONLINE_KEEP, nid, start_pfn, nr_pages);
	strcat(buf, default_zone->name);
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	print_allowed_zone(buf, nid, start_pfn, nr_pages, MMOP_ONLINE_KERNEL,
			default_zone);
	print_allowed_zone(buf, nid, start_pfn, nr_pages, MMOP_ONLINE_MOVABLE,
			default_zone);
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out:
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	strcat(buf, "\n");

	return strlen(buf);
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}
static DEVICE_ATTR(valid_zones, 0444, show_valid_zones, NULL);
#endif

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static DEVICE_ATTR(phys_index, 0444, show_mem_start_phys_index, NULL);
static DEVICE_ATTR(state, 0644, show_mem_state, store_mem_state);
static DEVICE_ATTR(phys_device, 0444, show_phys_device, NULL);
static DEVICE_ATTR(removable, 0444, show_mem_removable, NULL);
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/*
 * Block size attribute stuff
 */
static ssize_t
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print_block_size(struct device *dev, struct device_attribute *attr,
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		 char *buf)
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{
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	return sprintf(buf, "%lx\n", get_memory_block_size());
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}

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static DEVICE_ATTR(block_size_bytes, 0444, print_block_size, NULL);
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/*
 * Memory auto online policy.
 */

static ssize_t
show_auto_online_blocks(struct device *dev, struct device_attribute *attr,
			char *buf)
{
	if (memhp_auto_online)
		return sprintf(buf, "online\n");
	else
		return sprintf(buf, "offline\n");
}

static ssize_t
store_auto_online_blocks(struct device *dev, struct device_attribute *attr,
			 const char *buf, size_t count)
{
	if (sysfs_streq(buf, "online"))
		memhp_auto_online = true;
	else if (sysfs_streq(buf, "offline"))
		memhp_auto_online = false;
	else
		return -EINVAL;

	return count;
}

static DEVICE_ATTR(auto_online_blocks, 0644, show_auto_online_blocks,
		   store_auto_online_blocks);

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/*
 * Some architectures will have custom drivers to do this, and
 * will not need to do it from userspace.  The fake hot-add code
 * as well as ppc64 will do all of their discovery in userspace
 * and will require this interface.
 */
#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_MEMORY_PROBE
static ssize_t
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memory_probe_store(struct device *dev, struct device_attribute *attr,
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		   const char *buf, size_t count)
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{
	u64 phys_addr;
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	int nid, ret;
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	unsigned long pages_per_block = PAGES_PER_SECTION * sections_per_block;
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	ret = kstrtoull(buf, 0, &phys_addr);
	if (ret)
		return ret;
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	if (phys_addr & ((pages_per_block << PAGE_SHIFT) - 1))
		return -EINVAL;

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	nid = memory_add_physaddr_to_nid(phys_addr);
	ret = add_memory(nid, phys_addr,
			 MIN_MEMORY_BLOCK_SIZE * sections_per_block);
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	if (ret)
		goto out;
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	ret = count;
out:
	return ret;
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}

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static DEVICE_ATTR(probe, S_IWUSR, NULL, memory_probe_store);
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#endif

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#ifdef CONFIG_MEMORY_FAILURE
/*
 * Support for offlining pages of memory
 */

/* Soft offline a page */
static ssize_t
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store_soft_offline_page(struct device *dev,
			struct device_attribute *attr,
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			const char *buf, size_t count)
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{
	int ret;
	u64 pfn;
	if (!capable(CAP_SYS_ADMIN))
		return -EPERM;
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	if (kstrtoull(buf, 0, &pfn) < 0)
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		return -EINVAL;
	pfn >>= PAGE_SHIFT;
	if (!pfn_valid(pfn))
		return -ENXIO;
	ret = soft_offline_page(pfn_to_page(pfn), 0);
	return ret == 0 ? count : ret;
}

/* Forcibly offline a page, including killing processes. */
static ssize_t
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store_hard_offline_page(struct device *dev,
			struct device_attribute *attr,
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			const char *buf, size_t count)
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{
	int ret;
	u64 pfn;
	if (!capable(CAP_SYS_ADMIN))
		return -EPERM;
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	if (kstrtoull(buf, 0, &pfn) < 0)
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		return -EINVAL;
	pfn >>= PAGE_SHIFT;
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	ret = memory_failure(pfn, 0, 0);
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	return ret ? ret : count;
}

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static DEVICE_ATTR(soft_offline_page, S_IWUSR, NULL, store_soft_offline_page);
static DEVICE_ATTR(hard_offline_page, S_IWUSR, NULL, store_hard_offline_page);
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#endif

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/*
 * Note that phys_device is optional.  It is here to allow for
 * differentiation between which *physical* devices each
 * section belongs to...
 */
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int __weak arch_get_memory_phys_device(unsigned long start_pfn)
{
	return 0;
}
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/*
 * A reference for the returned object is held and the reference for the
 * hinted object is released.
 */
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struct memory_block *find_memory_block_hinted(struct mem_section *section,
					      struct memory_block *hint)
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{
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	int block_id = base_memory_block_id(__section_nr(section));
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	struct device *hintdev = hint ? &hint->dev : NULL;
	struct device *dev;
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	dev = subsys_find_device_by_id(&memory_subsys, block_id, hintdev);
	if (hint)
		put_device(&hint->dev);
	if (!dev)
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		return NULL;
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	return to_memory_block(dev);
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}

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/*
 * For now, we have a linear search to go find the appropriate
 * memory_block corresponding to a particular phys_index. If
 * this gets to be a real problem, we can always use a radix
 * tree or something here.
 *
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 * This could be made generic for all device subsystems.
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 */
struct memory_block *find_memory_block(struct mem_section *section)
{
	return find_memory_block_hinted(section, NULL);
}

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static struct attribute *memory_memblk_attrs[] = {
	&dev_attr_phys_index.attr,
	&dev_attr_state.attr,
	&dev_attr_phys_device.attr,
	&dev_attr_removable.attr,
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#ifdef CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTREMOVE
	&dev_attr_valid_zones.attr,
#endif
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	NULL
};

static struct attribute_group memory_memblk_attr_group = {
	.attrs = memory_memblk_attrs,
};

static const struct attribute_group *memory_memblk_attr_groups[] = {
	&memory_memblk_attr_group,
	NULL,
};

/*
 * register_memory - Setup a sysfs device for a memory block
 */
static
int register_memory(struct memory_block *memory)
{
	memory->dev.bus = &memory_subsys;
	memory->dev.id = memory->start_section_nr / sections_per_block;
	memory->dev.release = memory_block_release;
	memory->dev.groups = memory_memblk_attr_groups;
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	memory->dev.offline = memory->state == MEM_OFFLINE;
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	return device_register(&memory->dev);
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}

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static int init_memory_block(struct memory_block **memory,
			     struct mem_section *section, unsigned long state)
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{
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	struct memory_block *mem;
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	unsigned long start_pfn;
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	int scn_nr;
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	int ret = 0;

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	mem = kzalloc(sizeof(*mem), GFP_KERNEL);
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	if (!mem)
		return -ENOMEM;

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	scn_nr = __section_nr(section);
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	mem->start_section_nr =
			base_memory_block_id(scn_nr) * sections_per_block;
	mem->end_section_nr = mem->start_section_nr + sections_per_block - 1;
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	mem->state = state;
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	start_pfn = section_nr_to_pfn(mem->start_section_nr);
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	mem->phys_device = arch_get_memory_phys_device(start_pfn);

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	ret = register_memory(mem);

	*memory = mem;
	return ret;
}

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static int add_memory_block(int base_section_nr)
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{
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	struct memory_block *mem;
	int i, ret, section_count = 0, section_nr;
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	for (i = base_section_nr;
	     (i < base_section_nr + sections_per_block) && i < NR_MEM_SECTIONS;
	     i++) {
		if (!present_section_nr(i))
			continue;
		if (section_count == 0)
			section_nr = i;
		section_count++;
696 697
	}

698 699 700 701 702 703 704
	if (section_count == 0)
		return 0;
	ret = init_memory_block(&mem, __nr_to_section(section_nr), MEM_ONLINE);
	if (ret)
		return ret;
	mem->section_count = section_count;
	return 0;
705 706
}

707 708 709 710 711 712
/*
 * need an interface for the VM to add new memory regions,
 * but without onlining it.
 */
int register_new_memory(int nid, struct mem_section *section)
{
713 714
	int ret = 0;
	struct memory_block *mem;
715 716 717

	mutex_lock(&mem_sysfs_mutex);

718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725
	mem = find_memory_block(section);
	if (mem) {
		mem->section_count++;
		put_device(&mem->dev);
	} else {
		ret = init_memory_block(&mem, section, MEM_OFFLINE);
		if (ret)
			goto out;
726
		mem->section_count++;
727 728 729 730 731 732
	}

	if (mem->section_count == sections_per_block)
		ret = register_mem_sect_under_node(mem, nid);
out:
	mutex_unlock(&mem_sysfs_mutex);
733
	return ret;
734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742
}

#ifdef CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTREMOVE
static void
unregister_memory(struct memory_block *memory)
{
	BUG_ON(memory->dev.bus != &memory_subsys);

	/* drop the ref. we got in remove_memory_block() */
743
	put_device(&memory->dev);
744 745 746
	device_unregister(&memory->dev);
}

747
static int remove_memory_section(unsigned long node_id,
748
			       struct mem_section *section, int phys_device)
749 750 751
{
	struct memory_block *mem;

752
	mutex_lock(&mem_sysfs_mutex);
753 754 755 756 757

	/*
	 * Some users of the memory hotplug do not want/need memblock to
	 * track all sections. Skip over those.
	 */
758
	mem = find_memory_block(section);
759 760 761
	if (!mem)
		goto out_unlock;

762
	unregister_mem_sect_under_nodes(mem, __section_nr(section));
763 764

	mem->section_count--;
765
	if (mem->section_count == 0)
766
		unregister_memory(mem);
767
	else
768
		put_device(&mem->dev);
769

770
out_unlock:
771
	mutex_unlock(&mem_sysfs_mutex);
772 773 774 775 776
	return 0;
}

int unregister_memory_section(struct mem_section *section)
{
777
	if (!present_section(section))
778 779
		return -EINVAL;

780
	return remove_memory_section(0, section, 0);
781
}
782
#endif /* CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTREMOVE */
783

784 785 786 787 788 789
/* return true if the memory block is offlined, otherwise, return false */
bool is_memblock_offlined(struct memory_block *mem)
{
	return mem->state == MEM_OFFLINE;
}

790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800
static struct attribute *memory_root_attrs[] = {
#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_MEMORY_PROBE
	&dev_attr_probe.attr,
#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_MEMORY_FAILURE
	&dev_attr_soft_offline_page.attr,
	&dev_attr_hard_offline_page.attr,
#endif

	&dev_attr_block_size_bytes.attr,
801
	&dev_attr_auto_online_blocks.attr,
802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813
	NULL
};

static struct attribute_group memory_root_attr_group = {
	.attrs = memory_root_attrs,
};

static const struct attribute_group *memory_root_attr_groups[] = {
	&memory_root_attr_group,
	NULL,
};

814 815 816 817 818 819 820
/*
 * Initialize the sysfs support for memory devices...
 */
int __init memory_dev_init(void)
{
	unsigned int i;
	int ret;
821
	int err;
822
	unsigned long block_sz;
823

824
	ret = subsys_system_register(&memory_subsys, memory_root_attr_groups);
825 826
	if (ret)
		goto out;
827

828 829 830
	block_sz = get_memory_block_size();
	sections_per_block = block_sz / MIN_MEMORY_BLOCK_SIZE;

831 832 833 834
	/*
	 * Create entries for memory sections that were found
	 * during boot and have been initialized
	 */
835
	mutex_lock(&mem_sysfs_mutex);
836
	for (i = 0; i < NR_MEM_SECTIONS; i += sections_per_block) {
837 838 839 840
		/* Don't iterate over sections we know are !present: */
		if (i > __highest_present_section_nr)
			break;

841
		err = add_memory_block(i);
842 843
		if (!ret)
			ret = err;
844
	}
845
	mutex_unlock(&mem_sysfs_mutex);
846

847 848
out:
	if (ret)
849
		printk(KERN_ERR "%s() failed: %d\n", __func__, ret);
850 851
	return ret;
}