Commit 332ac17e authored by Dario Faggioli's avatar Dario Faggioli Committed by Ingo Molnar

sched/deadline: Add bandwidth management for SCHED_DEADLINE tasks

In order of deadline scheduling to be effective and useful, it is
important that some method of having the allocation of the available
CPU bandwidth to tasks and task groups under control.
This is usually called "admission control" and if it is not performed
at all, no guarantee can be given on the actual scheduling of the
-deadline tasks.

Since when RT-throttling has been introduced each task group have a
bandwidth associated to itself, calculated as a certain amount of
runtime over a period. Moreover, to make it possible to manipulate
such bandwidth, readable/writable controls have been added to both
procfs (for system wide settings) and cgroupfs (for per-group
settings).

Therefore, the same interface is being used for controlling the
bandwidth distrubution to -deadline tasks and task groups, i.e.,
new controls but with similar names, equivalent meaning and with
the same usage paradigm are added.

However, more discussion is needed in order to figure out how
we want to manage SCHED_DEADLINE bandwidth at the task group level.
Therefore, this patch adds a less sophisticated, but actually
very sensible, mechanism to ensure that a certain utilization
cap is not overcome per each root_domain (the single rq for !SMP
configurations).

Another main difference between deadline bandwidth management and
RT-throttling is that -deadline tasks have bandwidth on their own
(while -rt ones doesn't!), and thus we don't need an higher level
throttling mechanism to enforce the desired bandwidth.

This patch, therefore:

 - adds system wide deadline bandwidth management by means of:
    * /proc/sys/kernel/sched_dl_runtime_us,
    * /proc/sys/kernel/sched_dl_period_us,
   that determine (i.e., runtime / period) the total bandwidth
   available on each CPU of each root_domain for -deadline tasks;

 - couples the RT and deadline bandwidth management, i.e., enforces
   that the sum of how much bandwidth is being devoted to -rt
   -deadline tasks to stay below 100%.

This means that, for a root_domain comprising M CPUs, -deadline tasks
can be created until the sum of their bandwidths stay below:

    M * (sched_dl_runtime_us / sched_dl_period_us)

It is also possible to disable this bandwidth management logic, and
be thus free of oversubscribing the system up to any arbitrary level.
Signed-off-by: default avatarDario Faggioli <raistlin@linux.it>
Signed-off-by: default avatarJuri Lelli <juri.lelli@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: default avatarPeter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1383831828-15501-12-git-send-email-juri.lelli@gmail.comSigned-off-by: default avatarIngo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
parent 2d3d891d
......@@ -1104,6 +1104,7 @@ struct sched_dl_entity {
u64 dl_runtime; /* maximum runtime for each instance */
u64 dl_deadline; /* relative deadline of each instance */
u64 dl_period; /* separation of two instances (period) */
u64 dl_bw; /* dl_runtime / dl_deadline */
/*
* Actual scheduling parameters. Initialized with the values above,
......
......@@ -81,6 +81,15 @@ static inline unsigned int get_sysctl_timer_migration(void)
extern unsigned int sysctl_sched_rt_period;
extern int sysctl_sched_rt_runtime;
/*
* control SCHED_DEADLINE reservations:
*
* /proc/sys/kernel/sched_dl_period_us
* /proc/sys/kernel/sched_dl_runtime_us
*/
extern unsigned int sysctl_sched_dl_period;
extern int sysctl_sched_dl_runtime;
#ifdef CONFIG_CFS_BANDWIDTH
extern unsigned int sysctl_sched_cfs_bandwidth_slice;
#endif
......@@ -99,4 +108,8 @@ extern int sched_rt_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
void __user *buffer, size_t *lenp,
loff_t *ppos);
int sched_dl_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
void __user *buffer, size_t *lenp,
loff_t *ppos);
#endif /* _SCHED_SYSCTL_H */
......@@ -296,6 +296,15 @@ __read_mostly int scheduler_running;
*/
int sysctl_sched_rt_runtime = 950000;
/*
* Maximum bandwidth available for all -deadline tasks and groups
* (if group scheduling is configured) on each CPU.
*
* default: 5%
*/
unsigned int sysctl_sched_dl_period = 1000000;
int sysctl_sched_dl_runtime = 50000;
/*
......@@ -1856,6 +1865,111 @@ int sched_fork(unsigned long clone_flags, struct task_struct *p)
return 0;
}
unsigned long to_ratio(u64 period, u64 runtime)
{
if (runtime == RUNTIME_INF)
return 1ULL << 20;
/*
* Doing this here saves a lot of checks in all
* the calling paths, and returning zero seems
* safe for them anyway.
*/
if (period == 0)
return 0;
return div64_u64(runtime << 20, period);
}
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
inline struct dl_bw *dl_bw_of(int i)
{
return &cpu_rq(i)->rd->dl_bw;
}
static inline int __dl_span_weight(struct rq *rq)
{
return cpumask_weight(rq->rd->span);
}
#else
inline struct dl_bw *dl_bw_of(int i)
{
return &cpu_rq(i)->dl.dl_bw;
}
static inline int __dl_span_weight(struct rq *rq)
{
return 1;
}
#endif
static inline
void __dl_clear(struct dl_bw *dl_b, u64 tsk_bw)
{
dl_b->total_bw -= tsk_bw;
}
static inline
void __dl_add(struct dl_bw *dl_b, u64 tsk_bw)
{
dl_b->total_bw += tsk_bw;
}
static inline
bool __dl_overflow(struct dl_bw *dl_b, int cpus, u64 old_bw, u64 new_bw)
{
return dl_b->bw != -1 &&
dl_b->bw * cpus < dl_b->total_bw - old_bw + new_bw;
}
/*
* We must be sure that accepting a new task (or allowing changing the
* parameters of an existing one) is consistent with the bandwidth
* constraints. If yes, this function also accordingly updates the currently
* allocated bandwidth to reflect the new situation.
*
* This function is called while holding p's rq->lock.
*/
static int dl_overflow(struct task_struct *p, int policy,
const struct sched_attr *attr)
{
struct dl_bw *dl_b = dl_bw_of(task_cpu(p));
u64 period = attr->sched_period;
u64 runtime = attr->sched_runtime;
u64 new_bw = dl_policy(policy) ? to_ratio(period, runtime) : 0;
int cpus = __dl_span_weight(task_rq(p));
int err = -1;
if (new_bw == p->dl.dl_bw)
return 0;
/*
* Either if a task, enters, leave, or stays -deadline but changes
* its parameters, we may need to update accordingly the total
* allocated bandwidth of the container.
*/
raw_spin_lock(&dl_b->lock);
if (dl_policy(policy) && !task_has_dl_policy(p) &&
!__dl_overflow(dl_b, cpus, 0, new_bw)) {
__dl_add(dl_b, new_bw);
err = 0;
} else if (dl_policy(policy) && task_has_dl_policy(p) &&
!__dl_overflow(dl_b, cpus, p->dl.dl_bw, new_bw)) {
__dl_clear(dl_b, p->dl.dl_bw);
__dl_add(dl_b, new_bw);
err = 0;
} else if (!dl_policy(policy) && task_has_dl_policy(p)) {
__dl_clear(dl_b, p->dl.dl_bw);
err = 0;
}
raw_spin_unlock(&dl_b->lock);
return err;
}
extern void init_dl_bw(struct dl_bw *dl_b);
/*
* wake_up_new_task - wake up a newly created task for the first time.
*
......@@ -3053,6 +3167,7 @@ __setparam_dl(struct task_struct *p, const struct sched_attr *attr)
dl_se->dl_deadline = attr->sched_deadline;
dl_se->dl_period = attr->sched_period ?: dl_se->dl_deadline;
dl_se->flags = attr->sched_flags;
dl_se->dl_bw = to_ratio(dl_se->dl_period, dl_se->dl_runtime);
dl_se->dl_throttled = 0;
dl_se->dl_new = 1;
}
......@@ -3101,7 +3216,9 @@ __getparam_dl(struct task_struct *p, struct sched_attr *attr)
* This function validates the new parameters of a -deadline task.
* We ask for the deadline not being zero, and greater or equal
* than the runtime, as well as the period of being zero or
* greater than deadline.
* greater than deadline. Furthermore, we have to be sure that
* user parameters are above the internal resolution (1us); we
* check sched_runtime only since it is always the smaller one.
*/
static bool
__checkparam_dl(const struct sched_attr *attr)
......@@ -3109,7 +3226,8 @@ __checkparam_dl(const struct sched_attr *attr)
return attr && attr->sched_deadline != 0 &&
(attr->sched_period == 0 ||
(s64)(attr->sched_period - attr->sched_deadline) >= 0) &&
(s64)(attr->sched_deadline - attr->sched_runtime ) >= 0;
(s64)(attr->sched_deadline - attr->sched_runtime ) >= 0 &&
attr->sched_runtime >= (2 << (DL_SCALE - 1));
}
/*
......@@ -3250,8 +3368,8 @@ static int __sched_setscheduler(struct task_struct *p,
}
change:
#ifdef CONFIG_RT_GROUP_SCHED
if (user) {
#ifdef CONFIG_RT_GROUP_SCHED
/*
* Do not allow realtime tasks into groups that have no runtime
* assigned.
......@@ -3262,8 +3380,33 @@ static int __sched_setscheduler(struct task_struct *p,
task_rq_unlock(rq, p, &flags);
return -EPERM;
}
}
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
if (dl_bandwidth_enabled() && dl_policy(policy)) {
cpumask_t *span = rq->rd->span;
cpumask_t act_affinity;
/*
* cpus_allowed mask is statically initialized with
* CPU_MASK_ALL, span is instead dynamic. Here we
* compute the "dynamic" affinity of a task.
*/
cpumask_and(&act_affinity, &p->cpus_allowed,
cpu_active_mask);
/*
* Don't allow tasks with an affinity mask smaller than
* the entire root_domain to become SCHED_DEADLINE. We
* will also fail if there's no bandwidth available.
*/
if (!cpumask_equal(&act_affinity, span) ||
rq->rd->dl_bw.bw == 0) {
task_rq_unlock(rq, p, &flags);
return -EPERM;
}
}
#endif
}
/* recheck policy now with rq lock held */
if (unlikely(oldpolicy != -1 && oldpolicy != p->policy)) {
......@@ -3271,6 +3414,18 @@ static int __sched_setscheduler(struct task_struct *p,
task_rq_unlock(rq, p, &flags);
goto recheck;
}
/*
* If setscheduling to SCHED_DEADLINE (or changing the parameters
* of a SCHED_DEADLINE task) we need to check if enough bandwidth
* is available.
*/
if ((dl_policy(policy) || dl_task(p)) &&
dl_overflow(p, policy, attr)) {
task_rq_unlock(rq, p, &flags);
return -EBUSY;
}
on_rq = p->on_rq;
running = task_current(rq, p);
if (on_rq)
......@@ -3705,6 +3860,24 @@ long sched_setaffinity(pid_t pid, const struct cpumask *in_mask)
if (retval)
goto out_unlock;
/*
* Since bandwidth control happens on root_domain basis,
* if admission test is enabled, we only admit -deadline
* tasks allowed to run on all the CPUs in the task's
* root_domain.
*/
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
if (task_has_dl_policy(p)) {
const struct cpumask *span = task_rq(p)->rd->span;
if (dl_bandwidth_enabled() &&
!cpumask_equal(in_mask, span)) {
retval = -EBUSY;
goto out_unlock;
}
}
#endif
cpuset_cpus_allowed(p, cpus_allowed);
cpumask_and(new_mask, in_mask, cpus_allowed);
again:
......@@ -4358,6 +4531,42 @@ int set_cpus_allowed_ptr(struct task_struct *p, const struct cpumask *new_mask)
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(set_cpus_allowed_ptr);
/*
* When dealing with a -deadline task, we have to check if moving it to
* a new CPU is possible or not. In fact, this is only true iff there
* is enough bandwidth available on such CPU, otherwise we want the
* whole migration progedure to fail over.
*/
static inline
bool set_task_cpu_dl(struct task_struct *p, unsigned int cpu)
{
struct dl_bw *dl_b = dl_bw_of(task_cpu(p));
struct dl_bw *cpu_b = dl_bw_of(cpu);
int ret = 1;
u64 bw;
if (dl_b == cpu_b)
return 1;
raw_spin_lock(&dl_b->lock);
raw_spin_lock(&cpu_b->lock);
bw = cpu_b->bw * cpumask_weight(cpu_rq(cpu)->rd->span);
if (dl_bandwidth_enabled() &&
bw < cpu_b->total_bw + p->dl.dl_bw) {
ret = 0;
goto unlock;
}
dl_b->total_bw -= p->dl.dl_bw;
cpu_b->total_bw += p->dl.dl_bw;
unlock:
raw_spin_unlock(&cpu_b->lock);
raw_spin_unlock(&dl_b->lock);
return ret;
}
/*
* Move (not current) task off this cpu, onto dest cpu. We're doing
* this because either it can't run here any more (set_cpus_allowed()
......@@ -4389,6 +4598,13 @@ static int __migrate_task(struct task_struct *p, int src_cpu, int dest_cpu)
if (!cpumask_test_cpu(dest_cpu, tsk_cpus_allowed(p)))
goto fail;
/*
* If p is -deadline, proceed only if there is enough
* bandwidth available on dest_cpu
*/
if (unlikely(dl_task(p)) && !set_task_cpu_dl(p, dest_cpu))
goto fail;
/*
* If we're not on a rq, the next wake-up will ensure we're
* placed properly.
......@@ -5128,6 +5344,8 @@ static int init_rootdomain(struct root_domain *rd)
if (!alloc_cpumask_var(&rd->rto_mask, GFP_KERNEL))
goto free_dlo_mask;
init_dl_bw(&rd->dl_bw);
if (cpupri_init(&rd->cpupri) != 0)
goto free_rto_mask;
return 0;
......@@ -6557,13 +6775,15 @@ void __init sched_init(void)
#endif /* CONFIG_CPUMASK_OFFSTACK */
}
init_rt_bandwidth(&def_rt_bandwidth,
global_rt_period(), global_rt_runtime());
init_dl_bandwidth(&def_dl_bandwidth,
global_dl_period(), global_dl_runtime());
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
init_defrootdomain();
#endif
init_rt_bandwidth(&def_rt_bandwidth,
global_rt_period(), global_rt_runtime());
#ifdef CONFIG_RT_GROUP_SCHED
init_rt_bandwidth(&root_task_group.rt_bandwidth,
global_rt_period(), global_rt_runtime());
......@@ -6966,16 +7186,6 @@ void sched_move_task(struct task_struct *tsk)
}
#endif /* CONFIG_CGROUP_SCHED */
#if defined(CONFIG_RT_GROUP_SCHED) || defined(CONFIG_CFS_BANDWIDTH)
static unsigned long to_ratio(u64 period, u64 runtime)
{
if (runtime == RUNTIME_INF)
return 1ULL << 20;
return div64_u64(runtime << 20, period);
}
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_RT_GROUP_SCHED
/*
* Ensure that the real time constraints are schedulable.
......@@ -7149,10 +7359,48 @@ static long sched_group_rt_period(struct task_group *tg)
do_div(rt_period_us, NSEC_PER_USEC);
return rt_period_us;
}
#endif /* CONFIG_RT_GROUP_SCHED */
/*
* Coupling of -rt and -deadline bandwidth.
*
* Here we check if the new -rt bandwidth value is consistent
* with the system settings for the bandwidth available
* to -deadline tasks.
*
* IOW, we want to enforce that
*
* rt_bandwidth + dl_bandwidth <= 100%
*
* is always true.
*/
static bool __sched_rt_dl_global_constraints(u64 rt_bw)
{
unsigned long flags;
u64 dl_bw;
bool ret;
raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&def_dl_bandwidth.dl_runtime_lock, flags);
if (global_rt_runtime() == RUNTIME_INF ||
global_dl_runtime() == RUNTIME_INF) {
ret = true;
goto unlock;
}
dl_bw = to_ratio(def_dl_bandwidth.dl_period,
def_dl_bandwidth.dl_runtime);
ret = rt_bw + dl_bw <= to_ratio(RUNTIME_INF, RUNTIME_INF);
unlock:
raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&def_dl_bandwidth.dl_runtime_lock, flags);
return ret;
}
#ifdef CONFIG_RT_GROUP_SCHED
static int sched_rt_global_constraints(void)
{
u64 runtime, period;
u64 runtime, period, bw;
int ret = 0;
if (sysctl_sched_rt_period <= 0)
......@@ -7167,6 +7415,10 @@ static int sched_rt_global_constraints(void)
if (runtime > period && runtime != RUNTIME_INF)
return -EINVAL;
bw = to_ratio(period, runtime);
if (!__sched_rt_dl_global_constraints(bw))
return -EINVAL;
mutex_lock(&rt_constraints_mutex);
read_lock(&tasklist_lock);
ret = __rt_schedulable(NULL, 0, 0);
......@@ -7189,19 +7441,19 @@ static int sched_rt_can_attach(struct task_group *tg, struct task_struct *tsk)
static int sched_rt_global_constraints(void)
{
unsigned long flags;
int i;
int i, ret = 0;
u64 bw;
if (sysctl_sched_rt_period <= 0)
return -EINVAL;
/*
* There's always some RT tasks in the root group
* -- migration, kstopmachine etc..
*/
if (sysctl_sched_rt_runtime == 0)
return -EBUSY;
raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&def_rt_bandwidth.rt_runtime_lock, flags);
bw = to_ratio(global_rt_period(), global_rt_runtime());
if (!__sched_rt_dl_global_constraints(bw)) {
ret = -EINVAL;
goto unlock;
}
for_each_possible_cpu(i) {
struct rt_rq *rt_rq = &cpu_rq(i)->rt;
......@@ -7209,12 +7461,93 @@ static int sched_rt_global_constraints(void)
rt_rq->rt_runtime = global_rt_runtime();
raw_spin_unlock(&rt_rq->rt_runtime_lock);
}
unlock:
raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&def_rt_bandwidth.rt_runtime_lock, flags);
return 0;
return ret;
}
#endif /* CONFIG_RT_GROUP_SCHED */
/*
* Coupling of -dl and -rt bandwidth.
*
* Here we check, while setting the system wide bandwidth available
* for -dl tasks and groups, if the new values are consistent with
* the system settings for the bandwidth available to -rt entities.
*
* IOW, we want to enforce that
*
* rt_bandwidth + dl_bandwidth <= 100%
*
* is always true.
*/
static bool __sched_dl_rt_global_constraints(u64 dl_bw)
{
u64 rt_bw;
bool ret;
raw_spin_lock(&def_rt_bandwidth.rt_runtime_lock);
if (global_dl_runtime() == RUNTIME_INF ||
global_rt_runtime() == RUNTIME_INF) {
ret = true;
goto unlock;
}
rt_bw = to_ratio(ktime_to_ns(def_rt_bandwidth.rt_period),
def_rt_bandwidth.rt_runtime);
ret = rt_bw + dl_bw <= to_ratio(RUNTIME_INF, RUNTIME_INF);
unlock:
raw_spin_unlock(&def_rt_bandwidth.rt_runtime_lock);
return ret;
}
static bool __sched_dl_global_constraints(u64 runtime, u64 period)
{
if (!period || (runtime != RUNTIME_INF && runtime > period))
return -EINVAL;
return 0;
}
static int sched_dl_global_constraints(void)
{
u64 runtime = global_dl_runtime();
u64 period = global_dl_period();
u64 new_bw = to_ratio(period, runtime);
int ret, i;
ret = __sched_dl_global_constraints(runtime, period);
if (ret)
return ret;
if (!__sched_dl_rt_global_constraints(new_bw))
return -EINVAL;
/*
* Here we want to check the bandwidth not being set to some
* value smaller than the currently allocated bandwidth in
* any of the root_domains.
*
* FIXME: Cycling on all the CPUs is overdoing, but simpler than
* cycling on root_domains... Discussion on different/better
* solutions is welcome!
*/
for_each_possible_cpu(i) {
struct dl_bw *dl_b = dl_bw_of(i);
raw_spin_lock(&dl_b->lock);
if (new_bw < dl_b->total_bw) {
raw_spin_unlock(&dl_b->lock);
return -EBUSY;
}
raw_spin_unlock(&dl_b->lock);
}
return 0;
}
int sched_rr_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
void __user *buffer, size_t *lenp,
loff_t *ppos)
......@@ -7264,6 +7597,60 @@ int sched_rt_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
return ret;
}
int sched_dl_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
void __user *buffer, size_t *lenp,
loff_t *ppos)
{
int ret;
int old_period, old_runtime;
static DEFINE_MUTEX(mutex);
unsigned long flags;
mutex_lock(&mutex);
old_period = sysctl_sched_dl_period;
old_runtime = sysctl_sched_dl_runtime;
ret = proc_dointvec(table, write, buffer, lenp, ppos);
if (!ret && write) {
raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&def_dl_bandwidth.dl_runtime_lock,
flags);
ret = sched_dl_global_constraints();
if (ret) {
sysctl_sched_dl_period = old_period;
sysctl_sched_dl_runtime = old_runtime;
} else {
u64 new_bw;
int i;
def_dl_bandwidth.dl_period = global_dl_period();
def_dl_bandwidth.dl_runtime = global_dl_runtime();
if (global_dl_runtime() == RUNTIME_INF)
new_bw = -1;
else
new_bw = to_ratio(global_dl_period(),
global_dl_runtime());
/*
* FIXME: As above...
*/
for_each_possible_cpu(i) {
struct dl_bw *dl_b = dl_bw_of(i);
raw_spin_lock(&dl_b->lock);
dl_b->bw = new_bw;
raw_spin_unlock(&dl_b->lock);
}
}
raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&def_dl_bandwidth.dl_runtime_lock,
flags);
}
mutex_unlock(&mutex);
return ret;
}
#ifdef CONFIG_CGROUP_SCHED
static inline struct task_group *css_tg(struct cgroup_subsys_state *css)
......
......@@ -16,6 +16,8 @@
*/
#include "sched.h"
struct dl_bandwidth def_dl_bandwidth;
static inline struct task_struct *dl_task_of(struct sched_dl_entity *dl_se)
{
return container_of(dl_se, struct task_struct, dl);
......@@ -46,6 +48,27 @@ static inline int is_leftmost(struct task_struct *p, struct dl_rq *dl_rq)
return dl_rq->rb_leftmost == &dl_se->rb_node;
}
void init_dl_bandwidth(struct dl_bandwidth *dl_b, u64 period, u64 runtime)