Commit 47e29d32 authored by John Hubbard's avatar John Hubbard Committed by Linus Torvalds

mm/gup: page->hpage_pinned_refcount: exact pin counts for huge pages

For huge pages (and in fact, any compound page), the GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS
scheme tends to overflow too easily, each tail page increments the head
page->_refcount by GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS (1024).  That limits the number
of huge pages that can be pinned.

This patch removes that limitation, by using an exact form of pin counting
for compound pages of order > 1.  The "order > 1" is required because this
approach uses the 3rd struct page in the compound page, and order 1
compound pages only have two pages, so that won't work there.

A new struct page field, hpage_pinned_refcount, has been added, replacing
a padding field in the union (so no new space is used).

This enhancement also has a useful side effect: huge pages and compound
pages (of order > 1) do not suffer from the "potential false positives"
problem that is discussed in the page_dma_pinned() comment block.  That is
because these compound pages have extra space for tracking things, so they
get exact pin counts instead of overloading page->_refcount.

Documentation/core-api/pin_user_pages.rst is updated accordingly.
Suggested-by: default avatarJan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
Signed-off-by: default avatarJohn Hubbard <jhubbard@nvidia.com>
Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Reviewed-by: default avatarJan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
Acked-by: default avatarKirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Ira Weiny <ira.weiny@intel.com>
Cc: Jérôme Glisse <jglisse@redhat.com>
Cc: "Matthew Wilcox (Oracle)" <willy@infradead.org>
Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org>
Cc: Dan Williams <dan.j.williams@intel.com>
Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com>
Cc: Jason Gunthorpe <jgg@ziepe.ca>
Cc: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
Cc: Mike Kravetz <mike.kravetz@oracle.com>
Cc: Shuah Khan <shuah@kernel.org>
Cc: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20200211001536.1027652-8-jhubbard@nvidia.comSigned-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
parent 3faa52c0
......@@ -52,8 +52,22 @@ Which flags are set by each wrapper
For these pin_user_pages*() functions, FOLL_PIN is OR'd in with whatever gup
flags the caller provides. The caller is required to pass in a non-null struct
pages* array, and the function then pin pages by incrementing each by a special
value. For now, that value is +1, just like get_user_pages*().::
pages* array, and the function then pins pages by incrementing each by a special
value: GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS.
For huge pages (and in fact, any compound page of more than 2 pages), the
GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS scheme is not used. Instead, an exact form of pin counting
is achieved, by using the 3rd struct page in the compound page. A new struct
page field, hpage_pinned_refcount, has been added in order to support this.
This approach for compound pages avoids the counting upper limit problems that
are discussed below. Those limitations would have been aggravated severely by
huge pages, because each tail page adds a refcount to the head page. And in
fact, testing revealed that, without a separate hpage_pinned_refcount field,
page overflows were seen in some huge page stress tests.
This also means that huge pages and compound pages (of order > 1) do not suffer
from the false positives problem that is mentioned below.::
Function
--------
......@@ -99,27 +113,6 @@ pages:
This also leads to limitations: there are only 31-10==21 bits available for a
counter that increments 10 bits at a time.
TODO: for 1GB and larger huge pages, this is cutting it close. That's because
when pin_user_pages() follows such pages, it increments the head page by "1"
(where "1" used to mean "+1" for get_user_pages(), but now means "+1024" for
pin_user_pages()) for each tail page. So if you have a 1GB huge page:
* There are 256K (18 bits) worth of 4 KB tail pages.
* There are 21 bits available to count up via GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS (that is,
10 bits at a time)
* There are 21 - 18 == 3 bits available to count. Except that there aren't,
because you need to allow for a few normal get_page() calls on the head page,
as well. Fortunately, the approach of using addition, rather than "hard"
bitfields, within page->_refcount, allows for sharing these bits gracefully.
But we're still looking at about 8 references.
This, however, is a missing feature more than anything else, because it's easily
solved by addressing an obvious inefficiency in the original get_user_pages()
approach of retrieving pages: stop treating all the pages as if they were
PAGE_SIZE. Retrieve huge pages as huge pages. The callers need to be aware of
this, so some work is required. Once that's in place, this limitation mostly
disappears from view, because there will be ample refcounting range available.
* Callers must specifically request "dma-pinned tracking of pages". In other
words, just calling get_user_pages() will not suffice; a new set of functions,
pin_user_page() and related, must be used.
......@@ -228,5 +221,6 @@ References
* `Some slow progress on get_user_pages() (Apr 2, 2019) <https://lwn.net/Articles/784574/>`_
* `DMA and get_user_pages() (LPC: Dec 12, 2018) <https://lwn.net/Articles/774411/>`_
* `The trouble with get_user_pages() (Apr 30, 2018) <https://lwn.net/Articles/753027/>`_
* `LWN kernel index: get_user_pages() <https://lwn.net/Kernel/Index/#Memory_management-get_user_pages>`_
John Hubbard, October, 2019
......@@ -770,6 +770,24 @@ static inline unsigned int compound_order(struct page *page)
return page[1].compound_order;
}
static inline bool hpage_pincount_available(struct page *page)
{
/*
* Can the page->hpage_pinned_refcount field be used? That field is in
* the 3rd page of the compound page, so the smallest (2-page) compound
* pages cannot support it.
*/
page = compound_head(page);
return PageCompound(page) && compound_order(page) > 1;
}
static inline int compound_pincount(struct page *page)
{
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!hpage_pincount_available(page), page);
page = compound_head(page);
return atomic_read(compound_pincount_ptr(page));
}
static inline void set_compound_order(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
{
page[1].compound_order = order;
......@@ -1084,6 +1102,11 @@ void unpin_user_pages(struct page **pages, unsigned long npages);
* refcounts, and b) all the callers of this routine are expected to be able to
* deal gracefully with a false positive.
*
* For huge pages, the result will be exactly correct. That's because we have
* more tracking data available: the 3rd struct page in the compound page is
* used to track the pincount (instead using of the GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS
* scheme).
*
* For more information, please see Documentation/vm/pin_user_pages.rst.
*
* @page: pointer to page to be queried.
......@@ -1092,6 +1115,9 @@ void unpin_user_pages(struct page **pages, unsigned long npages);
*/
static inline bool page_maybe_dma_pinned(struct page *page)
{
if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
return compound_pincount(page) > 0;
/*
* page_ref_count() is signed. If that refcount overflows, then
* page_ref_count() returns a negative value, and callers will avoid
......
......@@ -137,7 +137,7 @@ struct page {
};
struct { /* Second tail page of compound page */
unsigned long _compound_pad_1; /* compound_head */
unsigned long _compound_pad_2;
atomic_t hpage_pinned_refcount;
/* For both global and memcg */
struct list_head deferred_list;
};
......@@ -226,6 +226,11 @@ static inline atomic_t *compound_mapcount_ptr(struct page *page)
return &page[1].compound_mapcount;
}
static inline atomic_t *compound_pincount_ptr(struct page *page)
{
return &page[2].hpage_pinned_refcount;
}
/*
* Used for sizing the vmemmap region on some architectures
*/
......
......@@ -29,6 +29,22 @@ struct follow_page_context {
unsigned int page_mask;
};
static void hpage_pincount_add(struct page *page, int refs)
{
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!hpage_pincount_available(page), page);
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(page != compound_head(page), page);
atomic_add(refs, compound_pincount_ptr(page));
}
static void hpage_pincount_sub(struct page *page, int refs)
{
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!hpage_pincount_available(page), page);
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(page != compound_head(page), page);
atomic_sub(refs, compound_pincount_ptr(page));
}
/*
* Return the compound head page with ref appropriately incremented,
* or NULL if that failed.
......@@ -70,8 +86,25 @@ static __maybe_unused struct page *try_grab_compound_head(struct page *page,
if (flags & FOLL_GET)
return try_get_compound_head(page, refs);
else if (flags & FOLL_PIN) {
refs *= GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
return try_get_compound_head(page, refs);
/*
* When pinning a compound page of order > 1 (which is what
* hpage_pincount_available() checks for), use an exact count to
* track it, via hpage_pincount_add/_sub().
*
* However, be sure to *also* increment the normal page refcount
* field at least once, so that the page really is pinned.
*/
if (!hpage_pincount_available(page))
refs *= GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
page = try_get_compound_head(page, refs);
if (!page)
return NULL;
if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
hpage_pincount_add(page, refs);
return page;
}
WARN_ON_ONCE(1);
......@@ -106,12 +139,25 @@ bool __must_check try_grab_page(struct page *page, unsigned int flags)
if (flags & FOLL_GET)
return try_get_page(page);
else if (flags & FOLL_PIN) {
int refs = 1;
page = compound_head(page);
if (WARN_ON_ONCE(page_ref_count(page) <= 0))
return false;
page_ref_add(page, GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS);
if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
hpage_pincount_add(page, 1);
else
refs = GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
/*
* Similar to try_grab_compound_head(): even if using the
* hpage_pincount_add/_sub() routines, be sure to
* *also* increment the normal page refcount field at least
* once, so that the page really is pinned.
*/
page_ref_add(page, refs);
}
return true;
......@@ -120,12 +166,17 @@ bool __must_check try_grab_page(struct page *page, unsigned int flags)
#ifdef CONFIG_DEV_PAGEMAP_OPS
static bool __unpin_devmap_managed_user_page(struct page *page)
{
int count;
int count, refs = 1;
if (!page_is_devmap_managed(page))
return false;
count = page_ref_sub_return(page, GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS);
if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
hpage_pincount_sub(page, 1);
else
refs = GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
count = page_ref_sub_return(page, refs);
/*
* devmap page refcounts are 1-based, rather than 0-based: if
......@@ -157,6 +208,8 @@ static bool __unpin_devmap_managed_user_page(struct page *page)
*/
void unpin_user_page(struct page *page)
{
int refs = 1;
page = compound_head(page);
/*
......@@ -168,7 +221,12 @@ void unpin_user_page(struct page *page)
if (__unpin_devmap_managed_user_page(page))
return;
if (page_ref_sub_and_test(page, GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS))
if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
hpage_pincount_sub(page, 1);
else
refs = GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
if (page_ref_sub_and_test(page, refs))
__put_page(page);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(unpin_user_page);
......@@ -1955,8 +2013,12 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(get_user_pages_unlocked);
static void put_compound_head(struct page *page, int refs, unsigned int flags)
{
if (flags & FOLL_PIN)
refs *= GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
if (flags & FOLL_PIN) {
if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
hpage_pincount_sub(page, refs);
else
refs *= GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
}
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(page_ref_count(page) < refs, page);
/*
......
......@@ -1009,6 +1009,9 @@ static void destroy_compound_gigantic_page(struct page *page,
struct page *p = page + 1;
atomic_set(compound_mapcount_ptr(page), 0);
if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
atomic_set(compound_pincount_ptr(page), 0);
for (i = 1; i < nr_pages; i++, p = mem_map_next(p, page, i)) {
clear_compound_head(p);
set_page_refcounted(p);
......@@ -1287,6 +1290,9 @@ static void prep_compound_gigantic_page(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
set_compound_head(p, page);
}
atomic_set(compound_mapcount_ptr(page), -1);
if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
atomic_set(compound_pincount_ptr(page), 0);
}
/*
......
......@@ -688,6 +688,8 @@ void prep_compound_page(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
set_compound_head(p, page);
}
atomic_set(compound_mapcount_ptr(page), -1);
if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
atomic_set(compound_pincount_ptr(page), 0);
}
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC
......
......@@ -1178,6 +1178,9 @@ void page_add_new_anon_rmap(struct page *page,
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageTransHuge(page), page);
/* increment count (starts at -1) */
atomic_set(compound_mapcount_ptr(page), 0);
if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
atomic_set(compound_pincount_ptr(page), 0);
__inc_node_page_state(page, NR_ANON_THPS);
} else {
/* Anon THP always mapped first with PMD */
......@@ -1974,6 +1977,9 @@ void hugepage_add_new_anon_rmap(struct page *page,
{
BUG_ON(address < vma->vm_start || address >= vma->vm_end);
atomic_set(compound_mapcount_ptr(page), 0);
if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
atomic_set(compound_pincount_ptr(page), 0);
__page_set_anon_rmap(page, vma, address, 1);
}
#endif /* CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE */
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