Commit edfe23da authored by Shaohua Li's avatar Shaohua Li Committed by Linus Torvalds
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swap: fix races exposed by swap discard

The previous patch can expose races, according to Hugh:

swapoff was sometimes failing with "Cannot allocate memory", coming from
try_to_unuse()'s -ENOMEM: it needs to allow for swap_duplicate() failing
on a free entry temporarily SWAP_MAP_BAD while being discarded.

We should use ACCESS_ONCE() there, and whenever accessing swap_map
locklessly; but rather than peppering it throughout try_to_unuse(), just
declare *swap_map with volatile.

try_to_unuse() is accustomed to *swap_map going down racily, but not
necessarily to it jumping up from 0 to SWAP_MAP_BAD: we'll be safer to
prevent that transition once SWP_WRITEOK is switched off, when it's a
waste of time to issue discards anyway (swapon can do a whole discard).

Another issue is:

In swapin_readahead(), read_swap_cache_async() can read a bad swap entry,
because we don't check if readahead swap entry is bad.  This doesn't break
anything but such swapin page is wasteful and can only be freed at page
reclaim.  We should avoid read such swap entry.  And in discard, we mark
swap entry SWAP_MAP_BAD and then switch it to normal when discard is
finished.  If readahead reads such swap entry, we have the same issue, so
we much check if swap entry is bad too.

Thanks Hugh to inspire swapin_readahead could use bad swap entry.

[include Hugh's patch 'swap: fix swapoff ENOMEMs from discard']
Signed-off-by: default avatarShaohua Li <>
Signed-off-by: default avatarHugh Dickins <>
Cc: Rik van Riel <>
Cc: Minchan Kim <>
Cc: Kyungmin Park <>
Cc: Rafael Aquini <>
Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <>
Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <>
parent 815c2c54
......@@ -370,7 +370,8 @@ static void dec_cluster_info_page(struct swap_info_struct *p,
* instead of free it immediately. The cluster will be freed
* after discard.
if (p->flags & SWP_PAGE_DISCARD) {
if ((p->flags & (SWP_WRITEOK | SWP_PAGE_DISCARD)) ==
swap_cluster_schedule_discard(p, idx);
......@@ -1288,7 +1289,7 @@ static unsigned int find_next_to_unuse(struct swap_info_struct *si,
count = si->swap_map[i];
count = ACCESS_ONCE(si->swap_map[i]);
if (count && swap_count(count) != SWAP_MAP_BAD)
......@@ -1308,7 +1309,11 @@ int try_to_unuse(unsigned int type, bool frontswap,
struct swap_info_struct *si = swap_info[type];
struct mm_struct *start_mm;
unsigned char *swap_map;
volatile unsigned char *swap_map; /* swap_map is accessed without
* locking. Mark it as volatile
* to prevent compiler doing
* something odd.
unsigned char swcount;
struct page *page;
swp_entry_t entry;
......@@ -1359,7 +1364,15 @@ int try_to_unuse(unsigned int type, bool frontswap,
* reused since sys_swapoff() already disabled
* allocation from here, or alloc_page() failed.
if (!*swap_map)
swcount = *swap_map;
* We don't hold lock here, so the swap entry could be
* SWAP_MAP_BAD (when the cluster is discarding).
* Instead of fail out, We can just skip the swap
* entry because swapoff will wait for discarding
* finish anyway.
if (!swcount || swcount == SWAP_MAP_BAD)
retval = -ENOMEM;
......@@ -2543,6 +2556,16 @@ static int __swap_duplicate(swp_entry_t entry, unsigned char usage)
goto unlock_out;
count = p->swap_map[offset];
* swapin_readahead() doesn't check if a swap entry is valid, so the
* swap entry could be SWAP_MAP_BAD. Check here with lock held.
if (unlikely(swap_count(count) == SWAP_MAP_BAD)) {
err = -ENOENT;
goto unlock_out;
has_cache = count & SWAP_HAS_CACHE;
count &= ~SWAP_HAS_CACHE;
err = 0;
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