1. 17 Jul, 2007 1 commit
    • Mel Gorman's avatar
      Allow huge page allocations to use GFP_HIGH_MOVABLE · 396faf03
      Mel Gorman authored
      Huge pages are not movable so are not allocated from ZONE_MOVABLE.  However,
      as ZONE_MOVABLE will always have pages that can be migrated or reclaimed, it
      can be used to satisfy hugepage allocations even when the system has been
      running a long time.  This allows an administrator to resize the hugepage pool
      at runtime depending on the size of ZONE_MOVABLE.
      This patch adds a new sysctl called hugepages_treat_as_movable.  When a
      non-zero value is written to it, future allocations for the huge page pool
      will use ZONE_MOVABLE.  Despite huge pages being non-movable, we do not
      introduce additional external fragmentation of note as huge pages are always
      the largest contiguous block we care about.
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: various fixes]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarMel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
  2. 21 Oct, 2006 1 commit
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: mempolicy migration typo fix · faf6bbcf
      Paul Jackson authored
      Mistyped an ifdef CONFIG_CPUSETS - fixed.
      I doubt that anyone ever noticed.  The impact of this typo was
      that if someone:
       1) was using MPOL_BIND to force off node allocations
       2) while using cpusets to constrain memory placement
       3) when that cpuset was migrating that jobs memory
       4) while the tasks in that job were actively forking
      then there was a rare chance that future allocations using
      that MPOL_BIND policy would be node local, not off node.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
  3. 26 Sep, 2006 1 commit
    • Christoph Lameter's avatar
      [PATCH] Apply type enum zone_type · 2f6726e5
      Christoph Lameter authored
      After we have done this we can now do some typing cleanup.
      The memory policy layer keeps a policy_zone that specifies
      the zone that gets memory policies applied. This variable
      can now be of type enum zone_type.
      The check_highest_zone function and the build_zonelists funnctionm must
      then also take a enum zone_type parameter.
      Plus there are a number of loops over zones that also should use
      We run into some troubles at some points with functions that need a
      zone_type variable to become -1. Fix that up.
      [pj@sgi.com: fix set_mempolicy() crash]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarChristoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
  4. 08 Jun, 2006 1 commit
    • Ralf Baechle's avatar
      [PATCH] Fix mempolicy.h build error · 45b35a5c
      Ralf Baechle authored
      From: Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org>
      <linux/mempolicy.h> uses struct mm_struct and relies on a definition or
      declaration somehow magically being dragged in which may result in a
        CC      mm/mempolicy.o
      In file included from mm/mempolicy.c:69:
      include/linux/mempolicy.h:150: warning: ‘struct mm_struct’ declared inside parameter list
      include/linux/mempolicy.h:150: warning: its scope is only this definition or declaration, which is probably not what you want
      include/linux/mempolicy.h:175: warning: ‘struct mm_struct’ declared inside parameter list
      mm/mempolicy.c:622: error: conflicting types for ‘do_migrate_pages’
      include/linux/mempolicy.h:175: error: previous declaration of ‘do_migrate_pages’ was here
      mm/mempolicy.c:1661: error: conflicting types for ‘mpol_rebind_mm’
      include/linux/mempolicy.h:150: error: previous declaration of ‘mpol_rebind_mm’ was here
      make[1]: *** [mm/mempolicy.o] Error 1
      make: *** [mm] Error 2
      [ralf@denk linux-ip35]$
      Including <linux/sched.h> is a step into direction of include hell so
      fixed by adding a forward declaration of struct mm_struct instead.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarRalf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
  5. 26 Apr, 2006 1 commit
  6. 24 Mar, 2006 1 commit
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset memory spread slab cache optimizations · c61afb18
      Paul Jackson authored
      The hooks in the slab cache allocator code path for support of NUMA
      mempolicies and cpuset memory spreading are in an important code path.  Many
      systems will use neither feature.
      This patch optimizes those hooks down to a single check of some bits in the
      current tasks task_struct flags.  For non NUMA systems, this hook and related
      code is already ifdef'd out.
      The optimization is done by using another task flag, set if the task is using
      a non-default NUMA mempolicy.  Taking this flag bit along with the
      PF_SPREAD_PAGE and PF_SPREAD_SLAB flag bits added earlier in this 'cpuset
      memory spreading' patch set, one can check for the combination of any of these
      special case memory placement mechanisms with a single test of the current
      tasks task_struct flags.
      This patch also tightens up the code, to save a few bytes of kernel text
      space, and moves some of it out of line.  Due to the nested inlines called
      from multiple places, we were ending up with three copies of this code, which
      once we get off the main code path (for local node allocation) seems a bit
      wasteful of instruction memory.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
  7. 19 Jan, 2006 1 commit
    • Christoph Lameter's avatar
      [PATCH] NUMA policies in the slab allocator V2 · dc85da15
      Christoph Lameter authored
      This patch fixes a regression in 2.6.14 against 2.6.13 that causes an
      imbalance in memory allocation during bootup.
      The slab allocator in 2.6.13 is not numa aware and simply calls
      alloc_pages().  This means that memory policies may control the behavior of
      alloc_pages().  During bootup the memory policy is set to MPOL_INTERLEAVE
      resulting in the spreading out of allocations during bootup over all
      available nodes.  The slab allocator in 2.6.13 has only a single list of
      slab pages.  As a result the per cpu slab cache and the spinlock controlled
      page lists may contain slab entries from off node memory.  The slab
      allocator in 2.6.13 makes no effort to discern the locality of an entry on
      its lists.
      The NUMA aware slab allocator in 2.6.14 controls locality of the slab pages
      explicitly by calling alloc_pages_node().  The NUMA slab allocator manages
      slab entries by having lists of available slab pages for each node.  The
      per cpu slab cache can only contain slab entries associated with the node
      local to the processor.  This guarantees that the default allocation mode
      of the slab allocator always assigns local memory if available.
      Setting MPOL_INTERLEAVE as a default policy during bootup has no effect
      anymore.  In 2.6.14 all node unspecific slab allocations are performed on
      the boot processor.  This means that most of key data structures are
      allocated on one node.  Most processors will have to refer to these
      structures making the boot node a potential bottleneck.  This may reduce
      performance and cause unnecessary memory pressure on the boot node.
      This patch implements NUMA policies in the slab layer.  There is the need
      of explicit application of NUMA memory policies by the slab allcator itself
      since the NUMA slab allocator does no longer let the page_allocator control
      The check for policies is made directly at the beginning of __cache_alloc
      using current->mempolicy.  The memory policy is already frequently checked
      by the page allocator (alloc_page_vma() and alloc_page_current()).  So it
      is highly likely that the cacheline is present.  For MPOL_INTERLEAVE
      kmalloc() will spread out each request to one node after another so that an
      equal distribution of allocations can be obtained during bootup.
      It is not possible to push the policy check to lower layers of the NUMA
      slab allocator since the per cpu caches are now only containing slab
      entries from the current node.  If the policy says that the local node is
      not to be preferred or forbidden then there is no point in checking the
      slab cache or local list of slab pages.  The allocation better be directed
      immediately to the lists containing slab entries for the allowed set of
      This way of applying policy also fixes another strange behavior in 2.6.13.
      alloc_pages() is controlled by the memory allocation policy of the current
      process.  It could therefore be that one process is running with
      MPOL_INTERLEAVE and would f.e.  obtain a new page following that policy
      since no slab entries are in the lists anymore.  A page can typically be
      used for multiple slab entries but lets say that the current process is
      only using one.  The other entries are then added to the slab lists.  These
      are now non local entries in the slab lists despite of the possible
      availability of local pages that would provide faster access and increase
      the performance of the application.
      Another process without MPOL_INTERLEAVE may now run and expect a local slab
      entry from kmalloc().  However, there are still these free slab entries
      from the off node page obtained from the other process via MPOL_INTERLEAVE
      in the cache.  The process will then get an off node slab entry although
      other slab entries may be available that are local to that process.  This
      means that the policy if one process may contaminate the locality of the
      slab caches for other processes.
      This patch in effect insures that a per process policy is followed for the
      allocation of slab entries and that there cannot be a memory policy
      influence from one process to another.  A process with default policy will
      always get a local slab entry if one is available.  And the process using
      memory policies will get its memory arranged as requested.  Off-node slab
      allocation will require the use of spinlocks and will make the use of per
      cpu caches not possible.  A process using memory policies to redirect
      allocations offnode will have to cope with additional lock overhead in
      addition to the latency added by the need to access a remote slab entry.
      Changes V1->V2
      - Remove #ifdef CONFIG_NUMA by moving forward declaration into
        prior #ifdef CONFIG_NUMA section.
      - Give the function determining the node number to use a saner
      Signed-off-by: default avatarChristoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
  8. 15 Jan, 2006 1 commit
    • Robin Holt's avatar
      [PATCH] Add tmpfs options for memory placement policies · 7339ff83
      Robin Holt authored
      Anything that writes into a tmpfs filesystem is liable to disproportionately
      decrease the available memory on a particular node.  Since there's no telling
      what sort of application (e.g.  dd/cp/cat) might be dropping large files
      there, this lets the admin choose the appropriate default behavior for their
      site's situation.
      Introduce a tmpfs mount option which allows specifying a memory policy and
      a second option to specify the nodelist for that policy.  With the default
      policy, tmpfs will behave as it does today.  This patch adds support for
      preferred, bind, and interleave policies.
      The default policy will cause pages to be added to tmpfs files on the node
      which is doing the writing.  Some jobs expect a single process to create
      and manage the tmpfs files.  This results in a node which has a
      significantly reduced number of free pages.
      With this patch, the administrator can specify the policy and nodes for
      that policy where they would prefer allocations.
      This patch was originally written by Brent Casavant and Hugh Dickins.  I
      added support for the bind and preferred policies and the mpol_nodelist
      mount option.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarBrent Casavant <bcasavan@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarHugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarRobin Holt <holt@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
  9. 09 Jan, 2006 6 commits
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: rebind vma mempolicies fix · 4225399a
      Paul Jackson authored
      Fix more of longstanding bug in cpuset/mempolicy interaction.
      NUMA mempolicies (mm/mempolicy.c) are constrained by the current tasks cpuset
      to just the Memory Nodes allowed by that cpuset.  The kernel maintains
      internal state for each mempolicy, tracking what nodes are used for the
      When a tasks cpuset memory placement changes, whether because the cpuset
      changed, or because the task was attached to a different cpuset, then the
      tasks mempolicies have to be rebound to the new cpuset placement, so as to
      preserve the cpuset-relative numbering of the nodes in that policy.
      An earlier fix handled such mempolicy rebinding for mempolicies attached to a
      This fix rebinds mempolicies attached to vma's (address ranges in a tasks
      address space.) Due to the need to hold the task->mm->mmap_sem semaphore while
      updating vma's, the rebinding of vma mempolicies has to be done when the
      cpuset memory placement is changed, at which time mmap_sem can be safely
      acquired.  The tasks mempolicy is rebound later, when the task next attempts
      to allocate memory and notices that its task->cpuset_mems_generation is
      out-of-date with its cpusets mems_generation.
      Because walking the tasklist to find all tasks attached to a changing cpuset
      requires holding tasklist_lock, a spinlock, one cannot update the vma's of the
      affected tasks while doing the tasklist scan.  In general, one cannot acquire
      a semaphore (which can sleep) while already holding a spinlock (such as
      tasklist_lock).  So a list of mm references has to be built up during the
      tasklist scan, then the tasklist lock dropped, then for each mm, its mmap_sem
      acquired, and the vma's in that mm rebound.
      Once the tasklist lock is dropped, affected tasks may fork new tasks, before
      their mm's are rebound.  A kernel global 'cpuset_being_rebound' is set to
      point to the cpuset being rebound (there can only be one; cpuset modifications
      are done under a global 'manage_sem' semaphore), and the mpol_copy code that
      is used to copy a tasks mempolicies during fork catches such forking tasks,
      and ensures their children are also rebound.
      When a task is moved to a different cpuset, it is easier, as there is only one
      task involved.  It's mm->vma's are scanned, using the same
      mpol_rebind_policy() as used above.
      It may happen that both the mpol_copy hook and the update done via the
      tasklist scan update the same mm twice.  This is ok, as the mempolicies of
      each vma in an mm keep track of what mems_allowed they are relative to, and
      safely no-op a second request to rebind to the same nodes.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: numa_policy_rebind cleanup · 74cb2155
      Paul Jackson authored
      Cleanup, reorganize and make more robust the mempolicy.c code to rebind
      mempolicies relative to the containing cpuset after a tasks memory placement
      The real motivator for this cleanup patch is to lay more groundwork for the
      upcoming patch to correctly rebind NUMA mempolicies that are attached to vma's
      after the containing cpuset memory placement changes.
      NUMA mempolicies are constrained by the cpuset their task is a member of.
      When either (1) a task is moved to a different cpuset, or (2) the 'mems'
      mems_allowed of a cpuset is changed, then the NUMA mempolicies have embedded
      node numbers (for MPOL_BIND, MPOL_INTERLEAVE and MPOL_PREFERRED) that need to
      be recalculated, relative to their new cpuset placement.
      The old code used an unreliable method of determining what was the old
      mems_allowed constraining the mempolicy.  It just looked at the tasks
      mems_allowed value.  This sort of worked with the present code, that just
      rebinds the -task- mempolicy, and leaves any -vma- mempolicies broken,
      referring to the old nodes.  But in an upcoming patch, the vma mempolicies
      will be rebound as well.  Then the order in which the various task and vma
      mempolicies are updated will no longer be deterministic, and one can no longer
      count on the task->mems_allowed holding the old value for as long as needed.
      It's not even clear if the current code was guaranteed to work reliably for
      task mempolicies.
      So I added a mems_allowed field to each mempolicy, stating exactly what
      mems_allowed the policy is relative to, and updated synchronously and reliably
      anytime that the mempolicy is rebound.
      Also removed a useless wrapper routine, numa_policy_rebind(), and had its
      caller, cpuset_update_task_memory_state(), call directly to the rewritten
      policy_rebind() routine, and made that rebind routine extern instead of
      static, and added a "mpol_" prefix to its name, making it
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Christoph Lameter's avatar
      [PATCH] mempolicies: unexport get_vma_policy() · 48fce342
      Christoph Lameter authored
      Since the numa_maps functionality is now in mempolicy.c we no longer need to
      export get_vma_policy().
      Signed-off-by: default avatarChristoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com>
      Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@muc.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpusets: swap migration interface · 45b07ef3
      Paul Jackson authored
      Add a boolean "memory_migrate" to each cpuset, represented by a file
      containing "0" or "1" in each directory below /dev/cpuset.
      It defaults to false (file contains "0").  It can be set true by writing
      "1" to the file.
      If true, then anytime that a task is attached to the cpuset so marked, the
      pages of that task will be moved to that cpuset, preserving, to the extent
      practical, the cpuset-relative placement of the pages.
      Also anytime that a cpuset so marked has its memory placement changed (by
      writing to its "mems" file), the tasks in that cpuset will have their pages
      moved to the cpusets new nodes, preserving, to the extent practical, the
      cpuset-relative placement of the moved pages.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <christoph@lameter.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Christoph Lameter's avatar
      [PATCH] Swap Migration V5: sys_migrate_pages interface · 39743889
      Christoph Lameter authored
      sys_migrate_pages implementation using swap based page migration
      This is the original API proposed by Ray Bryant in his posts during the first
      half of 2005 on linux-mm@kvack.org and linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org.
      The intent of sys_migrate is to migrate memory of a process.  A process may
      have migrated to another node.  Memory was allocated optimally for the prior
      context.  sys_migrate_pages allows to shift the memory to the new node.
      sys_migrate_pages is also useful if the processes available memory nodes have
      changed through cpuset operations to manually move the processes memory.  Paul
      Jackson is working on an automated mechanism that will allow an automatic
      migration if the cpuset of a process is changed.  However, a user may decide
      to manually control the migration.
      This implementation is put into the policy layer since it uses concepts and
      functions that are also needed for mbind and friends.  The patch also provides
      a do_migrate_pages function that may be useful for cpusets to automatically
      move memory.  sys_migrate_pages does not modify policies in contrast to Ray's
      The current code here is based on the swap based page migration capability and
      thus is not able to preserve the physical layout relative to it containing
      nodeset (which may be a cpuset).  When direct page migration becomes available
      then the implementation needs to be changed to do a isomorphic move of pages
      between different nodesets.  The current implementation simply evicts all
      pages in source nodeset that are not in the target nodeset.
      Patch supports ia64, i386 and x86_64.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarChristoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Christoph Lameter's avatar
      [PATCH] Swap Migration V5: MPOL_MF_MOVE interface · dc9aa5b9
      Christoph Lameter authored
      Add page migration support via swap to the NUMA policy layer
      This patch adds page migration support to the NUMA policy layer.  An
      additional flag MPOL_MF_MOVE is introduced for mbind.  If MPOL_MF_MOVE is
      specified then pages that do not conform to the memory policy will be evicted
      from memory.  When they get pages back in new pages will be allocated
      following the numa policy.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarChristoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
  10. 06 Jan, 2006 3 commits
  11. 31 Oct, 2005 1 commit
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpusets: automatic numa mempolicy rebinding · 68860ec1
      Paul Jackson authored
      This patch automatically updates a tasks NUMA mempolicy when its cpuset
      memory placement changes.  It does so within the context of the task,
      without any need to support low level external mempolicy manipulation.
      If a system is not using cpusets, or if running on a system with just the
      root (all-encompassing) cpuset, then this remap is a no-op.  Only when a
      task is moved between cpusets, or a cpusets memory placement is changed
      does the following apply.  Otherwise, the main routine below,
      rebind_policy() is not even called.
      When mixing cpusets, scheduler affinity, and NUMA mempolicies, the
      essential role of cpusets is to place jobs (several related tasks) on a set
      of CPUs and Memory Nodes, the essential role of sched_setaffinity is to
      manage a jobs processor placement within its allowed cpuset, and the
      essential role of NUMA mempolicy (mbind, set_mempolicy) is to manage a jobs
      memory placement within its allowed cpuset.
      However, CPU affinity and NUMA memory placement are managed within the
      kernel using absolute system wide numbering, not cpuset relative numbering.
      This is ok until a job is migrated to a different cpuset, or what's the
      same, a jobs cpuset is moved to different CPUs and Memory Nodes.
      Then the CPU affinity and NUMA memory placement of the tasks in the job
      need to be updated, to preserve their cpuset-relative position.  This can
      be done for CPU affinity using sched_setaffinity() from user code, as one
      task can modify anothers CPU affinity.  This cannot be done from an
      external task for NUMA memory placement, as that can only be modified in
      the context of the task using it.
      However, it easy enough to remap a tasks NUMA mempolicy automatically when
      a task is migrated, using the existing cpuset mechanism to trigger a
      refresh of a tasks memory placement after its cpuset has changed.  All that
      is needed is the old and new nodemask, and notice to the task that it needs
      to rebind its mempolicy.  The tasks mems_allowed has the old mask, the
      tasks cpuset has the new mask, and the existing
      cpuset_update_current_mems_allowed() mechanism provides the notice.  The
      bitmap/cpumask/nodemask remap operators provide the cpuset relative
      This patch leaves open a couple of issues:
       1) Updating vma and shmfs/tmpfs/hugetlbfs memory policies:
          These mempolicies may reference nodes outside of those allowed to
          the current task by its cpuset.  Tasks are migrated as part of jobs,
          which reside on what might be several cpusets in a subtree.  When such
          a job is migrated, all NUMA memory policy references to nodes within
          that cpuset subtree should be translated, and references to any nodes
          outside that subtree should be left untouched.  A future patch will
          provide the cpuset mechanism needed to mark such subtrees.  With that
          patch, we will be able to correctly migrate these other memory policies
          across a job migration.
       2) Updating cpuset, affinity and memory policies in user space:
          This is harder.  Any placement state stored in user space using
          system-wide numbering will be invalidated across a migration.  More
          work will be required to provide user code with a migration-safe means
          to manage its cpuset relative placement, while preserving the current
          API's that pass system wide numbers, not cpuset relative numbers across
          the kernel-user boundary.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
  12. 30 Oct, 2005 2 commits
  13. 08 Sep, 2005 1 commit
  14. 05 Sep, 2005 1 commit
    • Christoph Lameter's avatar
      [PATCH] /proc/<pid>/numa_maps to show on which nodes pages reside · 6e21c8f1
      Christoph Lameter authored
      This patch was recently discussed on linux-mm:
      I inherited a large code base from Ray for page migration.  There was a
      small patch in there that I find to be very useful since it allows the
      display of the locality of the pages in use by a process.  I reworked that
      patch and came up with a /proc/<pid>/numa_maps that gives more information
      about the vma's of a process.  numa_maps is indexes by the start address
      found in /proc/<pid>/maps.  F.e.  with this patch you can see the page use
      of the "getty" process:
      margin:/proc/12008 # cat maps
      00000000-00004000 r--p 00000000 00:00 0
      2000000000000000-200000000002c000 r-xp 00000000 08:04 516                /lib/ld-2.3.3.so
      2000000000038000-2000000000040000 rw-p 00028000 08:04 516                /lib/ld-2.3.3.so
      2000000000040000-2000000000044000 rw-p 2000000000040000 00:00 0
      2000000000058000-2000000000260000 r-xp 00000000 08:04 54707842           /lib/tls/libc.so.6.1
      2000000000260000-2000000000268000 ---p 00208000 08:04 54707842           /lib/tls/libc.so.6.1
      2000000000268000-2000000000274000 rw-p 00200000 08:04 54707842           /lib/tls/libc.so.6.1
      2000000000274000-2000000000280000 rw-p 2000000000274000 00:00 0
      2000000000280000-20000000002b4000 r--p 00000000 08:04 9126923            /usr/lib/locale/en_US.utf8/LC_CTYPE
      2000000000300000-2000000000308000 r--s 00000000 08:04 60071467           /usr/lib/gconv/gconv-modules.cache
      2000000000318000-2000000000328000 rw-p 2000000000318000 00:00 0
      4000000000000000-4000000000008000 r-xp 00000000 08:04 29576399           /sbin/mingetty
      6000000000004000-6000000000008000 rw-p 00004000 08:04 29576399           /sbin/mingetty
      6000000000008000-600000000002c000 rw-p 6000000000008000 00:00 0          [heap]
      60000fff7fffc000-60000fff80000000 rw-p 60000fff7fffc000 00:00 0
      60000ffffff44000-60000ffffff98000 rw-p 60000ffffff44000 00:00 0          [stack]
      a000000000000000-a000000000020000 ---p 00000000 00:00 0                  [vdso]
      cat numa_maps
      2000000000000000 default MaxRef=43 Pages=11 Mapped=11 N0=4 N1=3 N2=2 N3=2
      2000000000038000 default MaxRef=1 Pages=2 Mapped=2 Anon=2 N0=2
      2000000000040000 default MaxRef=1 Pages=1 Mapped=1 Anon=1 N0=1
      2000000000058000 default MaxRef=43 Pages=61 Mapped=61 N0=14 N1=15 N2=16 N3=16
      2000000000268000 default MaxRef=1 Pages=2 Mapped=2 Anon=2 N0=2
      2000000000274000 default MaxRef=1 Pages=3 Mapped=3 Anon=3 N0=3
      2000000000280000 default MaxRef=8 Pages=3 Mapped=3 N0=3
      2000000000300000 default MaxRef=8 Pages=2 Mapped=2 N0=2
      2000000000318000 default MaxRef=1 Pages=1 Mapped=1 Anon=1 N2=1
      4000000000000000 default MaxRef=6 Pages=2 Mapped=2 N1=2
      6000000000004000 default MaxRef=1 Pages=1 Mapped=1 Anon=1 N0=1
      6000000000008000 default MaxRef=1 Pages=1 Mapped=1 Anon=1 N0=1
      60000fff7fffc000 default MaxRef=1 Pages=1 Mapped=1 Anon=1 N0=1
      60000ffffff44000 default MaxRef=1 Pages=1 Mapped=1 Anon=1 N0=1
      getty uses ld.so.  The first vma is the code segment which is used by 43
      other processes and the pages are evenly distributed over the 4 nodes.
      The second vma is the process specific data portion for ld.so.  This is
      only one page.
      The display format is:
      <startaddress>	 Links to information in /proc/<pid>/map
      <memory policy>  This can be "default" "interleave={}", "prefer=<node>" or "bind={<zones>}"
      MaxRef=		<maximum reference to a page in this vma>
      Pages=		<Nr of pages in use>
      Mapped=		<Nr of pages with mapcount >
      Anon=		<nr of anonymous pages>
      Nx=		<Nr of pages on Node x>
      The content of the proc-file is self-evident.  If this would be tied into
      the sparsemem system then the contents of this file would not be too
      Signed-off-by: default avatarChristoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com>
      Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
  15. 16 Apr, 2005 1 commit
    • Linus Torvalds's avatar
      Linux-2.6.12-rc2 · 1da177e4
      Linus Torvalds authored
      Initial git repository build. I'm not bothering with the full history,
      even though we have it. We can create a separate "historical" git
      archive of that later if we want to, and in the meantime it's about
      3.2GB when imported into git - space that would just make the early
      git days unnecessarily complicated, when we don't have a lot of good
      infrastructure for it.
      Let it rip!