1. 09 Sep, 2017 4 commits
  2. 04 Sep, 2017 2 commits
  3. 17 Aug, 2017 1 commit
    • Paul E. McKenney's avatar
      ipc: Replace spin_unlock_wait() with lock/unlock pair · e0892e08
      Paul E. McKenney authored
      There is no agreed-upon definition of spin_unlock_wait()'s semantics,
      and it appears that all callers could do just as well with a lock/unlock
      pair.  This commit therefore replaces the spin_unlock_wait() call in
      exit_sem() with spin_lock() followed immediately by spin_unlock().
      This should be safe from a performance perspective because exit_sem()
      is rarely invoked in production.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
      Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
      Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: Alan Stern <stern@rowland.harvard.edu>
      Cc: Andrea Parri <parri.andrea@gmail.com>
      Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      Acked-by: default avatarManfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
      e0892e08
  4. 03 Aug, 2017 1 commit
  5. 16 Jul, 2017 3 commits
  6. 12 Jul, 2017 8 commits
  7. 02 Mar, 2017 1 commit
  8. 28 Feb, 2017 2 commits
    • Manfred Spraul's avatar
      ipc/sem: add hysteresis · 9de5ab8a
      Manfred Spraul authored
      sysv sem has two lock modes: One with per-semaphore locks, one lock mode
      with a single global lock for the whole array.  When switching from the
      per-semaphore locks to the global lock, all per-semaphore locks must be
      scanned for ongoing operations.
      
      The patch adds a hysteresis for switching from the global lock to the
      per semaphore locks.  This reduces how often the per-semaphore locks
      must be scanned.
      
      Compared to the initial patch, this is a simplified solution: Setting
      USE_GLOBAL_LOCK_HYSTERESIS to 1 restores the current behavior.
      
      In theory, a workload with exactly 10 simple sops and then one complex
      op now scales a bit worse, but this is pure theory: If there is
      concurrency, the it won't be exactly 10:1:10:1:10:1:...  If there is no
      concurrency, then there is no need for scalability.
      
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1476851896-3590-3-git-send-email-manfred@colorfullife.comSigned-off-by: default avatarManfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
      Cc: <1vier1@web.de>
      Cc: kernel test robot <xiaolong.ye@intel.com>
      Cc: <felixh@informatik.uni-bremen.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      9de5ab8a
    • Manfred Spraul's avatar
      ipc/sem.c: avoid using spin_unlock_wait() · 27d7be18
      Manfred Spraul authored
      a) The ACQUIRE in spin_lock() applies to the read, not to the store, at
         least for powerpc.  This forces to add a smp_mb() into the fast path.
      
      b) The memory barrier provided by spin_unlock_wait() is right now arch
         dependent.
      
      Therefore: Use spin_lock()/spin_unlock() instead of spin_unlock_wait().
      
      Advantage: faster single op semop calls(), observed +8.9% on x86.  (the
      other solution would be arch dependencies in ipc/sem).
      
      Disadvantage: slower complex op semop calls, if (and only if) there are
      no sleeping operations.
      
      The next patch adds hysteresis, this further reduces the probability
      that the slow path is used.
      
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1476851896-3590-2-git-send-email-manfred@colorfullife.comSigned-off-by: default avatarManfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
      Cc: <1vier1@web.de>
      Cc: kernel test robot <xiaolong.ye@intel.com>
      Cc: <felixh@informatik.uni-bremen.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      27d7be18
  9. 11 Jan, 2017 1 commit
  10. 15 Dec, 2016 7 commits
  11. 11 Oct, 2016 2 commits
    • Nikolay Borisov's avatar
      ipc/sem.c: add cond_resched in exit_sme · 2a1613a5
      Nikolay Borisov authored
      In CONFIG_PREEMPT=n kernel a softlockup was observed while the for loop in
      exit_sem.  Apparently it's possible for the loop to take quite a long time
      and it doesn't have a scheduling point in it.  Since the codes is
      executing under an rcu read section this may also cause rcu stalls, which
      in turn block synchronize_rcu operations, which more or less de-stabilises
      the whole system.
      
      Fix this by introducing a cond_resched() at the beginning of the loop.
      
      So this patch fixes the following:
      
        NMI watchdog: BUG: soft lockup - CPU#10 stuck for 23s! [httpd:18119]
        CPU: 10 PID: 18119 Comm: httpd Tainted: G           O    4.4.20-clouder2 #6
        Hardware name: Supermicro X10DRi/X10DRi, BIOS 1.1 04/14/2015
        task: ffff88348d695280 ti: ffff881c95550000 task.ti: ffff881c95550000
        RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff81614bc7>]  [<ffffffff81614bc7>] _raw_spin_lock+0x17/0x30
        RSP: 0018:ffff881c95553e40  EFLAGS: 00000246
        RAX: 0000000000000000 RBX: ffff883161b1eea8 RCX: 000000000000000d
        RDX: 0000000000000001 RSI: 000000000000000e RDI: ffff883161b1eea4
        RBP: ffff881c95553ea0 R08: ffff881c95553e68 R09: ffff883fef376f88
        R10: ffff881fffb58c20 R11: ffffea0072556600 R12: ffff883161b1eea0
        R13: ffff88348d695280 R14: ffff883dec427000 R15: ffff8831621672a0
        FS:  0000000000000000(0000) GS:ffff881fffb40000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000
        CS:  0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 0000000080050033
        CR2: 00007f3b3723e020 CR3: 0000000001c0a000 CR4: 00000000001406e0
        Call Trace:
          ? exit_sem+0x7c/0x280
          do_exit+0x338/0xb40
          do_group_exit+0x43/0xd0
          SyS_exit_group+0x14/0x20
          entry_SYSCALL_64_fastpath+0x16/0x6e
      
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1475154992-6363-1-git-send-email-kernel@kyup.comSigned-off-by: default avatarNikolay Borisov <kernel@kyup.com>
      Cc: Herton R. Krzesinski <herton@redhat.com>
      Cc: Fabian Frederick <fabf@skynet.be>
      Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
      Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      2a1613a5
    • Manfred Spraul's avatar
      ipc/sem.c: fix complex_count vs. simple op race · 5864a2fd
      Manfred Spraul authored
      Commit 6d07b68c ("ipc/sem.c: optimize sem_lock()") introduced a
      race:
      
      sem_lock has a fast path that allows parallel simple operations.
      There are two reasons why a simple operation cannot run in parallel:
       - a non-simple operations is ongoing (sma->sem_perm.lock held)
       - a complex operation is sleeping (sma->complex_count != 0)
      
      As both facts are stored independently, a thread can bypass the current
      checks by sleeping in the right positions.  See below for more details
      (or kernel bugzilla 105651).
      
      The patch fixes that by creating one variable (complex_mode)
      that tracks both reasons why parallel operations are not possible.
      
      The patch also updates stale documentation regarding the locking.
      
      With regards to stable kernels:
      The patch is required for all kernels that include the
      commit 6d07b68c ("ipc/sem.c: optimize sem_lock()") (3.10?)
      
      The alternative is to revert the patch that introduced the race.
      
      The patch is safe for backporting, i.e. it makes no assumptions
      about memory barriers in spin_unlock_wait().
      
      Background:
      Here is the race of the current implementation:
      
      Thread A: (simple op)
      - does the first "sma->complex_count == 0" test
      
      Thread B: (complex op)
      - does sem_lock(): This includes an array scan. But the scan can't
        find Thread A, because Thread A does not own sem->lock yet.
      - the thread does the operation, increases complex_count,
        drops sem_lock, sleeps
      
      Thread A:
      - spin_lock(&sem->lock), spin_is_locked(sma->sem_perm.lock)
      - sleeps before the complex_count test
      
      Thread C: (complex op)
      - does sem_lock (no array scan, complex_count==1)
      - wakes up Thread B.
      - decrements complex_count
      
      Thread A:
      - does the complex_count test
      
      Bug:
      Now both thread A and thread C operate on the same array, without
      any synchronization.
      
      Fixes: 6d07b68c ("ipc/sem.c: optimize sem_lock()")
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1469123695-5661-1-git-send-email-manfred@colorfullife.com
      Reported-by: <felixh@informatik.uni-bremen.de>
      Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      Cc: <1vier1@web.de>
      Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>	[3.10+]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      5864a2fd
  12. 02 Aug, 2016 1 commit
    • Fabian Frederick's avatar
      sysv, ipc: fix security-layer leaking · 9b24fef9
      Fabian Frederick authored
      Commit 53dad6d3 ("ipc: fix race with LSMs") updated ipc_rcu_putref()
      to receive rcu freeing function but used generic ipc_rcu_free() instead
      of msg_rcu_free() which does security cleaning.
      
      Running LTP msgsnd06 with kmemleak gives the following:
      
        cat /sys/kernel/debug/kmemleak
      
        unreferenced object 0xffff88003c0a11f8 (size 8):
          comm "msgsnd06", pid 1645, jiffies 4294672526 (age 6.549s)
          hex dump (first 8 bytes):
            1b 00 00 00 01 00 00 00                          ........
          backtrace:
            kmemleak_alloc+0x23/0x40
            kmem_cache_alloc_trace+0xe1/0x180
            selinux_msg_queue_alloc_security+0x3f/0xd0
            security_msg_queue_alloc+0x2e/0x40
            newque+0x4e/0x150
            ipcget+0x159/0x1b0
            SyS_msgget+0x39/0x40
            entry_SYSCALL_64_fastpath+0x13/0x8f
      
      Manfred Spraul suggested to fix sem.c as well and Davidlohr Bueso to
      only use ipc_rcu_free in case of security allocation failure in newary()
      
      Fixes: 53dad6d3 ("ipc: fix race with LSMs")
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1470083552-22966-1-git-send-email-fabf@skynet.beSigned-off-by: default avatarFabian Frederick <fabf@skynet.be>
      Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
      Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
      Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>	[3.12+]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      9b24fef9
  13. 14 Jun, 2016 2 commits
  14. 22 Mar, 2016 1 commit
    • Davidlohr Bueso's avatar
      ipc/sem: make semctl setting sempid consistent · a5f4db87
      Davidlohr Bueso authored
      As indicated by bug#112271, Linux sets the sempid value upon semctl, and
      not only for semop calls.  However, within semctl we only do this for
      SETVAL, leaving SETALL without updating the field, and therefore rather
      inconsistent behavior when compared to other Unices.
      
      There is really no documentation regarding this and therefore users
      should not make assumptions.  With this patch, along with updating
      semctl.2 manpages, this scenario should become less ambiguous As such,
      set sempid on SETALL cmd.
      
      Also update some in-code documentation, specifying where the sempid is
      set.
      
      Passes ltp and custom testcase where a child (fork) does SETALL to the
      set.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
      Reported-by: default avatarPhilip Semanchuk <linux_kernel.20.ick@spamgourmet.com>
      Cc: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com>
      Cc: PrasannaKumar Muralidharan <prasannatsmkumar@gmail.com>
      Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
      Cc: Herton R. Krzesinski <herton@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      a5f4db87
  15. 23 Jan, 2016 1 commit
  16. 14 Aug, 2015 3 commits
    • Manfred Spraul's avatar
      ipc/sem.c: update/correct memory barriers · 3ed1f8a9
      Manfred Spraul authored
      sem_lock() did not properly pair memory barriers:
      
      !spin_is_locked() and spin_unlock_wait() are both only control barriers.
      The code needs an acquire barrier, otherwise the cpu might perform read
      operations before the lock test.
      
      As no primitive exists inside <include/spinlock.h> and since it seems
      noone wants another primitive, the code creates a local primitive within
      ipc/sem.c.
      
      With regards to -stable:
      
      The change of sem_wait_array() is a bugfix, the change to sem_lock() is a
      nop (just a preprocessor redefinition to improve the readability).  The
      bugfix is necessary for all kernels that use sem_wait_array() (i.e.:
      starting from 3.10).
      Signed-off-by: default avatarManfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
      Reported-by: default avatarOleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarPeter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
      Cc: Kirill Tkhai <ktkhai@parallels.com>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
      Cc: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
      Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
      Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>	[3.10+]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      3ed1f8a9
    • Herton R. Krzesinski's avatar
      ipc,sem: remove uneeded sem_undo_list lock usage in exit_sem() · a9795584
      Herton R. Krzesinski authored
      After we acquire the sma->sem_perm lock in exit_sem(), we are protected
      against a racing IPC_RMID operation.  Also at that point, we are the last
      user of sem_undo_list.  Therefore it isn't required that we acquire or use
      ulp->lock.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarHerton R. Krzesinski <herton@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarManfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
      Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
      Cc: Rafael Aquini <aquini@redhat.com>
      CC: Aristeu Rozanski <aris@redhat.com>
      Cc: David Jeffery <djeffery@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      a9795584
    • Herton R. Krzesinski's avatar
      ipc,sem: fix use after free on IPC_RMID after a task using same semaphore set exits · 602b8593
      Herton R. Krzesinski authored
      The current semaphore code allows a potential use after free: in
      exit_sem we may free the task's sem_undo_list while there is still
      another task looping through the same semaphore set and cleaning the
      sem_undo list at freeary function (the task called IPC_RMID for the same
      semaphore set).
      
      For example, with a test program [1] running which keeps forking a lot
      of processes (which then do a semop call with SEM_UNDO flag), and with
      the parent right after removing the semaphore set with IPC_RMID, and a
      kernel built with CONFIG_SLAB, CONFIG_SLAB_DEBUG and
      CONFIG_DEBUG_SPINLOCK, you can easily see something like the following
      in the kernel log:
      
         Slab corruption (Not tainted): kmalloc-64 start=ffff88003b45c1c0, len=64
         000: 6b 6b 6b 6b 6b 6b 6b 6b 00 6b 6b 6b 6b 6b 6b 6b  kkkkkkkk.kkkkkkk
         010: ff ff ff ff 6b 6b 6b 6b ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff  ....kkkk........
         Prev obj: start=ffff88003b45c180, len=64
         000: 00 00 00 00 ad 4e ad de ff ff ff ff 5a 5a 5a 5a  .....N......ZZZZ
         010: ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff c0 fb 01 37 00 88 ff ff  ...........7....
         Next obj: start=ffff88003b45c200, len=64
         000: 00 00 00 00 ad 4e ad de ff ff ff ff 5a 5a 5a 5a  .....N......ZZZZ
         010: ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff 68 29 a7 3c 00 88 ff ff  ........h).<....
         BUG: spinlock wrong CPU on CPU#2, test/18028
         general protection fault: 0000 [#1] SMP
         Modules linked in: 8021q mrp garp stp llc nf_conntrack_ipv4 nf_defrag_ipv4 ip6t_REJECT nf_reject_ipv6 nf_conntrack_ipv6 nf_defrag_ipv6 xt_state nf_conntrack ip6table_filter ip6_tables binfmt_misc ppdev input_leds joydev parport_pc parport floppy serio_raw virtio_balloon virtio_rng virtio_console virtio_net iosf_mbi crct10dif_pclmul crc32_pclmul ghash_clmulni_intel pcspkr qxl ttm drm_kms_helper drm snd_hda_codec_generic i2c_piix4 snd_hda_intel snd_hda_codec snd_hda_core snd_hwdep snd_seq snd_seq_device snd_pcm snd_timer snd soundcore crc32c_intel virtio_pci virtio_ring virtio pata_acpi ata_generic [last unloaded: speedstep_lib]
         CPU: 2 PID: 18028 Comm: test Not tainted 4.2.0-rc5+ #1
         Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.8.1-20150318_183358- 04/01/2014
         RIP: spin_dump+0x53/0xc0
         Call Trace:
           spin_bug+0x30/0x40
           do_raw_spin_unlock+0x71/0xa0
           _raw_spin_unlock+0xe/0x10
           freeary+0x82/0x2a0
           ? _raw_spin_lock+0xe/0x10
           semctl_down.clone.0+0xce/0x160
           ? __do_page_fault+0x19a/0x430
           ? __audit_syscall_entry+0xa8/0x100
           SyS_semctl+0x236/0x2c0
           ? syscall_trace_leave+0xde/0x130
           entry_SYSCALL_64_fastpath+0x12/0x71
         Code: 8b 80 88 03 00 00 48 8d 88 60 05 00 00 48 c7 c7 a0 2c a4 81 31 c0 65 8b 15 eb 40 f3 7e e8 08 31 68 00 4d 85 e4 44 8b 4b 08 74 5e <45> 8b 84 24 88 03 00 00 49 8d 8c 24 60 05 00 00 8b 53 04 48 89
         RIP  [<ffffffff810d6053>] spin_dump+0x53/0xc0
          RSP <ffff88003750fd68>
         ---[ end trace 783ebb76612867a0 ]---
         NMI watchdog: BUG: soft lockup - CPU#3 stuck for 22s! [test:18053]
         Modules linked in: 8021q mrp garp stp llc nf_conntrack_ipv4 nf_defrag_ipv4 ip6t_REJECT nf_reject_ipv6 nf_conntrack_ipv6 nf_defrag_ipv6 xt_state nf_conntrack ip6table_filter ip6_tables binfmt_misc ppdev input_leds joydev parport_pc parport floppy serio_raw virtio_balloon virtio_rng virtio_console virtio_net iosf_mbi crct10dif_pclmul crc32_pclmul ghash_clmulni_intel pcspkr qxl ttm drm_kms_helper drm snd_hda_codec_generic i2c_piix4 snd_hda_intel snd_hda_codec snd_hda_core snd_hwdep snd_seq snd_seq_device snd_pcm snd_timer snd soundcore crc32c_intel virtio_pci virtio_ring virtio pata_acpi ata_generic [last unloaded: speedstep_lib]
         CPU: 3 PID: 18053 Comm: test Tainted: G      D         4.2.0-rc5+ #1
         Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.8.1-20150318_183358- 04/01/2014
         RIP: native_read_tsc+0x0/0x20
         Call Trace:
           ? delay_tsc+0x40/0x70
           __delay+0xf/0x20
           do_raw_spin_lock+0x96/0x140
           _raw_spin_lock+0xe/0x10
           sem_lock_and_putref+0x11/0x70
           SYSC_semtimedop+0x7bf/0x960
           ? handle_mm_fault+0xbf6/0x1880
           ? dequeue_task_fair+0x79/0x4a0
           ? __do_page_fault+0x19a/0x430
           ? kfree_debugcheck+0x16/0x40
           ? __do_page_fault+0x19a/0x430
           ? __audit_syscall_entry+0xa8/0x100
           ? do_audit_syscall_entry+0x66/0x70
           ? syscall_trace_enter_phase1+0x139/0x160
           SyS_semtimedop+0xe/0x10
           SyS_semop+0x10/0x20
           entry_SYSCALL_64_fastpath+0x12/0x71
         Code: 47 10 83 e8 01 85 c0 89 47 10 75 08 65 48 89 3d 1f 74 ff 7e c9 c3 0f 1f 44 00 00 55 48 89 e5 e8 87 17 04 00 66 90 c9 c3 0f 1f 00 <55> 48 89 e5 0f 31 89 c1 48 89 d0 48 c1 e0 20 89 c9 48 09 c8 c9
         Kernel panic - not syncing: softlockup: hung tasks
      
      I wasn't able to trigger any badness on a recent kernel without the
      proper config debugs enabled, however I have softlockup reports on some
      kernel versions, in the semaphore code, which are similar as above (the
      scenario is seen on some servers running IBM DB2 which uses semaphore
      syscalls).
      
      The patch here fixes the race against freeary, by acquiring or waiting
      on the sem_undo_list lock as necessary (exit_sem can race with freeary,
      while freeary sets un->semid to -1 and removes the same sem_undo from
      list_proc or when it removes the last sem_undo).
      
      After the patch I'm unable to reproduce the problem using the test case
      [1].
      
      [1] Test case used below:
      
          #include <stdio.h>
          #include <sys/types.h>
          #include <sys/ipc.h>
          #include <sys/sem.h>
          #include <sys/wait.h>
          #include <stdlib.h>
          #include <time.h>
          #include <unistd.h>
          #include <errno.h>
      
          #define NSEM 1
          #define NSET 5
      
          int sid[NSET];
      
          void thread()
          {
                  struct sembuf op;
                  int s;
                  uid_t pid = getuid();
      
                  s = rand() % NSET;
                  op.sem_num = pid % NSEM;
                  op.sem_op = 1;
                  op.sem_flg = SEM_UNDO;
      
                  semop(sid[s], &op, 1);
                  exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
          }
      
          void create_set()
          {
                  int i, j;
                  pid_t p;
                  union {
                          int val;
                          struct semid_ds *buf;
                          unsigned short int *array;
                          struct seminfo *__buf;
                  } un;
      
                  /* Create and initialize semaphore set */
                  for (i = 0; i < NSET; i++) {
                          sid[i] = semget(IPC_PRIVATE , NSEM, 0644 | IPC_CREAT);
                          if (sid[i] < 0) {
                                  perror("semget");
                                  exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                          }
                  }
                  un.val = 0;
                  for (i = 0; i < NSET; i++) {
                          for (j = 0; j < NSEM; j++) {
                                  if (semctl(sid[i], j, SETVAL, un) < 0)
                                          perror("semctl");
                          }
                  }
      
                  /* Launch threads that operate on semaphore set */
                  for (i = 0; i < NSEM * NSET * NSET; i++) {
                          p = fork();
                          if (p < 0)
                                  perror("fork");
                          if (p == 0)
                                  thread();
                  }
      
                  /* Free semaphore set */
                  for (i = 0; i < NSET; i++) {
                          if (semctl(sid[i], NSEM, IPC_RMID))
                                  perror("IPC_RMID");
                  }
      
                  /* Wait for forked processes to exit */
                  while (wait(NULL)) {
                          if (errno == ECHILD)
                                  break;
                  };
          }
      
          int main(int argc, char **argv)
          {
                  pid_t p;
      
                  srand(time(NULL));
      
                  while (1) {
                          p = fork();
                          if (p < 0) {
                                  perror("fork");
                                  exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                          }
                          if (p == 0) {
                                  create_set();
                                  goto end;
                          }
      
                          /* Wait for forked processes to exit */
                          while (wait(NULL)) {
                                  if (errno == ECHILD)
                                          break;
                          };
                  }
          end:
                  return 0;
          }
      
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: use normal comment layout]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarHerton R. Krzesinski <herton@redhat.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarManfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
      Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
      Cc: Rafael Aquini <aquini@redhat.com>
      CC: Aristeu Rozanski <aris@redhat.com>
      Cc: David Jeffery <djeffery@redhat.com>
      Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      602b8593