Commit e71a4e1b authored by Ard Biesheuvel's avatar Ard Biesheuvel Committed by Will Deacon
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arm64: ftrace: add support for far branches to dynamic ftrace

Currently, dynamic ftrace support in the arm64 kernel assumes that all
core kernel code is within range of ordinary branch instructions that
occur in module code, which is usually the case, but is no longer
guaranteed now that we have support for module PLTs and address space

Since on arm64, all patching of branch instructions involves function
calls to the same entry point [ftrace_caller()], we can emit the modules
with a trampoline that has unlimited range, and patch both the trampoline
itself and the branch instruction to redirect the call via the trampoline.
Signed-off-by: default avatarArd Biesheuvel <>
[will: minor clarification to smp_wmb() comment]
Signed-off-by: default avatarWill Deacon <>
parent f8af0b36
......@@ -982,7 +982,7 @@ config RANDOMIZE_BASE
bool "Randomize the module region independently from the core kernel"
default y
Randomizes the location of the module region without considering the
......@@ -70,6 +70,9 @@ endif
KBUILD_LDFLAGS_MODULE += -T $(srctree)/arch/arm64/kernel/
KBUILD_LDFLAGS_MODULE += $(objtree)/arch/arm64/kernel/ftrace-mod.o
# Default value
......@@ -30,6 +30,9 @@ struct mod_plt_sec {
struct mod_arch_specific {
struct mod_plt_sec core;
struct mod_plt_sec init;
void *ftrace_trampoline;
......@@ -62,3 +62,6 @@ extra-y += $(head-y)
ifeq ($(CONFIG_DEBUG_EFI),y)
AFLAGS_head.o += -DVMLINUX_PATH="\"$(realpath $(objtree)/vmlinux)\""
# will be included by each individual module but not by the core kernel itself
extra-$(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE) += ftrace-mod.o
* Copyright (C) 2017 Linaro Ltd <>
* This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
* it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
* published by the Free Software Foundation.
#include <linux/linkage.h>
#include <asm/assembler.h>
.section ".text.ftrace_trampoline", "ax"
.align 3
0: .quad 0
ldr x16, 0b
br x16
......@@ -10,10 +10,12 @@
#include <linux/ftrace.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/swab.h>
#include <linux/uaccess.h>
#include <asm/cacheflush.h>
#include <asm/debug-monitors.h>
#include <asm/ftrace.h>
#include <asm/insn.h>
......@@ -69,8 +71,57 @@ int ftrace_update_ftrace_func(ftrace_func_t func)
int ftrace_make_call(struct dyn_ftrace *rec, unsigned long addr)
unsigned long pc = rec->ip;
long offset = (long)pc - (long)addr;
u32 old, new;
(offset < -SZ_128M || offset >= SZ_128M)) {
unsigned long *trampoline;
struct module *mod;
* On kernels that support module PLTs, the offset between the
* branch instruction and its target may legally exceed the
* range of an ordinary relative 'bl' opcode. In this case, we
* need to branch via a trampoline in the module.
* NOTE: __module_text_address() must be called with preemption
* disabled, but we can rely on ftrace_lock to ensure that 'mod'
* retains its validity throughout the remainder of this code.
mod = __module_text_address(pc);
if (WARN_ON(!mod))
return -EINVAL;
* There is only one ftrace trampoline per module. For now,
* this is not a problem since on arm64, all dynamic ftrace
* invocations are routed via ftrace_caller(). This will need
* to be revisited if support for multiple ftrace entry points
* is added in the future, but for now, the pr_err() below
* deals with a theoretical issue only.
trampoline = (unsigned long *)mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline;
if (trampoline[0] != addr) {
if (trampoline[0] != 0) {
pr_err("ftrace: far branches to multiple entry points unsupported inside a single module\n");
return -EINVAL;
/* point the trampoline to our ftrace entry point */
trampoline[0] = addr;
module_enable_ro(mod, true);
/* update trampoline before patching in the branch */
addr = (unsigned long)&trampoline[1];
old = aarch64_insn_gen_nop();
new = aarch64_insn_gen_branch_imm(pc, addr, AARCH64_INSN_BRANCH_LINK);
......@@ -420,8 +420,12 @@ int module_finalize(const Elf_Ehdr *hdr,
for (s = sechdrs, se = sechdrs + hdr->e_shnum; s < se; s++) {
if (strcmp(".altinstructions", secstrs + s->sh_name) == 0) {
apply_alternatives((void *)s->sh_addr, s->sh_size);
return 0;
!strcmp(".text.ftrace_trampoline", secstrs + s->sh_name))
me->arch.ftrace_trampoline = (void *)s->sh_addr;
return 0;
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