Commit 0161028b authored by Andy Lutomirski's avatar Andy Lutomirski Committed by Linus Torvalds

perf/core: Change the default paranoia level to 2

Allowing unprivileged kernel profiling lets any user dump follow kernel
control flow and dump kernel registers.  This most likely allows trivial
kASLR bypassing, and it may allow other mischief as well.  (Off the top
of my head, the PERF_SAMPLE_REGS_INTR output during /dev/urandom reads
could be quite interesting.)
Signed-off-by: default avatarAndy Lutomirski <>
Acked-by: default avatarKees Cook <>
Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <>
parent 5c56b563
......@@ -645,7 +645,7 @@ allowed to execute.
Controls use of the performance events system by unprivileged
users (without CAP_SYS_ADMIN). The default value is 1.
users (without CAP_SYS_ADMIN). The default value is 2.
-1: Allow use of (almost) all events by all users
>=0: Disallow raw tracepoint access by users without CAP_IOC_LOCK
......@@ -351,7 +351,7 @@ static struct srcu_struct pmus_srcu;
* 1 - disallow cpu events for unpriv
* 2 - disallow kernel profiling for unpriv
int sysctl_perf_event_paranoid __read_mostly = 1;
int sysctl_perf_event_paranoid __read_mostly = 2;
/* Minimum for 512 kiB + 1 user control page */
int sysctl_perf_event_mlock __read_mostly = 512 + (PAGE_SIZE / 1024); /* 'free' kiB per user */
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