Newer Older
1 2
systemd System and Service Manager

Michael Biebl's avatar
Michael Biebl committed
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429

        * logind has gained support for facilitating privileged input
          and drm device access for unprivileged clients. This work is
          useful to allow Wayland display servers (and similar
          programs, such as kmscon) to run under the user's ID and
          access input and drm devices which are normally
          protected. When this is used (and the kernel is new enough)
          logind will "mute" IO on the file descriptors passed to
          Wayland as long as it is in the background and "unmute" it
          if it returns into the foreground. This allows secure
          session switching without allowing background sessions to
          eavesdrop on input and display data. This also introduces
          session switching support if VT support is turned off in the
          kernel, and on seats that are not seat0.

        * A new kernel command line option luks.options= is understood
          now which allows specifiying LUKS options for usage for LUKS
          encrypted partitions specified with luks.uuid=.

        * tmpfiles.d(5) snippets may now use specifier expansion in
          path names. More specifically %m, %b, %H, %v, are now
          replaced by the local machine id, boot id, hostname, and
          kernel version number.

        * A new tmpfiles.d(5) command "m" has been introduced which
          may be used to change the owner/group/access mode of a file
          or directory if it exists, but do nothing if it doesn't.

        * This release removes high-level support for the
          MemorySoftLimit= cgroup setting. The underlying kernel
          cgroup attribute memory.soft_limit= is currently badly
          designed and likely to be removed from the kernel API in its
          current form, hence we shouldn't expose it for now.

        * The memory.use_hierarchy cgroup attribute is now enabled for
          all cgroups systemd creates in the memory cgroup
          hierarchy. This option is likely to be come the built-in
          default in the kernel anyway, and the non-hierarchial mode
          never made much sense in the intrinsically hierarchial
          cgroup system.

        * A new field _SYSTEMD_SLICE= is logged along with all journal
          messages containing the slice a message was generated
          from. This is useful to allow easy per-customer filtering of
          logs among other things.

        * systemd-journald will no longer adjust the group of journal
          files it creates to the "systemd-journal" group. Instead we
          rely on the journal directory to be owned by the
          "systemd-journal" group, and its setgid bit set, so that the
          kernel file system layer will automatically enforce that
          journal files inherit this group assignment. The reason for
          this change is that we cannot allow NSS look-ups from
          journald which would be necessary to resolve
          "systemd-journal" to a numeric GID, because this might
          create deadlocks if NSS involves synchronous queries to
          other daemons (such as nscd, or sssd) which in turn are
          logging clients of journald and might block on it, which
          would then dead lock. A tmpfiles.d(5) snippet included in
          systemd will make sure the setgid bit and group are
          properly set on the journal directory if it exists on every
          boot. However, we recommend adjusting it manually after
          upgrades too (or from RPM scriptlets), so that the change is
          not delayed until next reboot.

        * Backlight and random seed files in /var/lib/ have moved into
          the /var/lib/systemd/ directory, in order to centralize all
          systemd generated files in one directory.

        * Boot time performance measurements (as displayed by
          "systemd-analyze" for example) will now read ACPI 5.0 FPDT
          performance information if that's available to determine how
          much time BIOS and boot loader initialization required. With
          a sufficiently new BIOS you hence no longer need to boot
          with Gummiboot to get access to such information.

        Contributions from: Andrey Borzenkov, Chen Jie, Colin Walters,
        Cristian Rodríguez, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, David
        Mackey, David Strauss, Eelco Dolstra, Evan Callicoat, Gao
        feng, Harald Hoyer, Jimmie Tauriainen, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Martin Pitt,
        Michael Scherer, Michał Górny, Mike Gilbert, Patrick McCarty,
        Sebastian Ott, Tom Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        -- Berlin, 2013-10-02


        * The Restart= option for services now understands a new
          on-watchdog setting, which will restart the service
          automatically if the service stops sending out watchdog keep
          alive messages (as configured with WatchdogSec=).

        * The getty generator (which is responsible for bringing up a
          getty on configured serial consoles) will no longer only
          start a getty on the primary kernel console but on all
          others, too. This makes the order in which console= is
          specified on the kernel command line less important.

        * libsystemd-logind gained a new sd_session_get_vt() call to
          retrieve the VT number of a session.

        * If the option "tries=0" is set for an entry of /etc/crypttab
          its passphrase is queried indefinitely instead of any
          maximum number of tries.

        * If a service with a configure PID file terminates its PID
          file will now be removed automatically if it still exists
          afterwards. This should put an end to stale PID files.

        * systemd-run will now also take relative binary path names
          for execution and no longer insists on absolute paths.

        * InaccessibleDirectories= and ReadOnlyDirectories= now take
          paths that are optionally prefixed with "-" to indicate that
          it should not be considered a failure if they don't exist.

        * journalctl -o (and similar commands) now understands a new
          output mode "short-precise", it is similar to "short" but
          shows timestamps with usec accuracy.

        * The option "discard" (as known from Debian) is now
          synonymous to "allow-discards" in /etc/crypttab. In fact,
          "discard" is preferred now (since it is easier to remember
          and type).

        * Some licensing clean-ups were made, so that more code is now
          LGPL-2.1 licensed than before.

        * A minimal tool to save/restore the display backlight
          brightness across reboots has been added. It will store the
          backlight setting as late as possible at shutdown, and
          restore it as early as possible during reboot.

        * A logic to automatically discover and enable home and swap
          partitions on GPT disks has been added. With this in place
          /etc/fstab becomes optional for many setups as systemd can
          discover certain partitions located on the root disk
          automatically. Home partitions are recognized under their
          GPT type ID 933ac7e12eb44f13b8440e14e2aef915. Swap
          partitions are recognized under their GPT type ID

        * systemd will no longer pass any environment from the kernel
          or initrd to system services. If you want to set an
          environment for all services, do so via the kernel command
          line systemd.setenv= assignment.

        * The systemd-sysctl tool no longer natively reads the file
          /etc/sysctl.conf. If desired, the file should be symlinked
          from /etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf. Apart from providing
          legacy support by a symlink rather than built-in code, it
          also makes the otherwise hidden order of application of the
          different files visible. (Note that this partly reverts to a
          pre-198 application order of sysctl knobs!)

        * The "systemctl set-log-level" and "systemctl dump" commands
          have been moved to systemd-analyze.

        * systemd-run learned the new --remain-after-exit switch,
          which causes the scope unit not to be cleaned up
          automatically after the process terminated.

        * tmpfiles learned a new --exclude-prefix= switch to exclude
          certain paths from operation.

        * journald will now automatically flush all messages to disk
          as soon as a message of the log priorities CRIT, ALERT or
          EMERG is received.

        Contributions from: Andrew Cook, Brandon Philips, Christian
        Hesse, Christoph Junghans, Colin Walters, Daniel Schaal,
        Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Gao feng, George
        McCollister, Giovanni Campagna, Hannes Reinecke, Harald Hoyer,
        Herczeg Zsolt, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Jan Engelhardt,
        Jesper Larsen, Kay Sievers, Khem Raj, Lennart Poettering,
        Lukas Nykryn, Maciej Wereski, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel
        Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Marineau,
        Michael Scherer, Michael Stapelberg, Michal Sekletar, Michał
        Górny, Olivier Brunel, Ondrej Balaz, Ronny Chevalier, Shawn
        Landden, Steven Hiscocks, Thomas Bächler, Thomas Hindoe
        Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar, WANG Chao,
        William Giokas, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        -- Berlin, 2013-09-13


        * The documentation has been updated to cover the various new
          concepts introduced with 205.

        * Unit files now understand the new %v specifier which
          resolves to the kernel version string as returned by "uname

        * systemctl now supports filtering the unit list output by
          load state, active state and sub state, using the new
          --state= parameter.

        * "systemctl status" will now show the results of the
          condition checks (like ConditionPathExists= and similar) of
          the last start attempts of the unit. They are also logged to
          the journal.

        * "journalctl -b" may now be used to look for boot output of a
          specific boot. Try "journalctl -b -1" for the previous boot,
          but the syntax is substantially more powerful.

        * "journalctl --show-cursor" has been added which prints the
          cursor string the last shown log line. This may then be used
          with the new "journalctl --after-cursor=" switch to continue
          browsing logs from that point on.

        * "journalctl --force" may now be used to force regeneration
          of an FSS key.

        * Creation of "dead" device nodes has been moved from udev
          into kmod and tmpfiles. Previously, udev would read the kmod
          databases to pre-generate dead device nodes based on meta
          information contained in kernel modules, so that these would
          be auto-loaded on access rather then at boot. As this
          doesn't really have much to do with the exposing actual
          kernel devices to userspace this has always been slightly
          alien in the udev codebase. Following the new scheme kmod
          will now generate a runtime snippet for tmpfiles from the
          module meta information and it now is tmpfiles' job to the
          create the nodes. This also allows overriding access and
          other parameters for the nodes using the usual tmpfiles
          facilities. As side effect this allows us to remove the
          CAP_SYS_MKNOD capability bit from udevd entirely.

        * logind's device ACLs may now be applied to these "dead"
          devices nodes too, thus finally allowing managed access to
          devices such as /dev/snd/sequencer whithout loading the
          backing module right-away.

        * A new RPM macro has been added that may be used to apply
          tmpfiles configuration during package installation.

        * systemd-detect-virt and ConditionVirtualization= now can
          detect User-Mode-Linux machines (UML).

        * journald will now implicitly log the effective capabilities
          set of processes in the message metadata.

        * systemd-cryptsetup has gained support for TrueCrypt volumes.

        * The initrd interface has been simplified (more specifically,
          support for passing performance data via environment
          variables and fsck results via files in /run has been
          removed). These features were non-essential, and are
          nowadays available in a much nicer way by having systemd in
          the initrd serialize its state and have the hosts systemd
          deserialize it again.

        * The udev "keymap" data files and tools to apply keyboard
          specific mappings of scan to key codes, and force-release
          scan code lists have been entirely replaced by a udev
          "keyboard" builtin and a hwdb data file.

        * systemd will now honour the kernel's "quiet" command line
          argument also during late shutdown, resulting in a
          completely silent shutdown when used.

        * There's now an option to control the SO_REUSEPORT socket
          option in .socket units.

        * Instance units will now automatically get a per-template
          subslice of system.slice unless something else is explicitly
          configured. For example, instances of sshd@.service will now
          implicitly be placed in system-sshd.slice rather than
          system.slice as before.

        * Test coverage support may now be enabled at build time.

        Contributions from: Dave Reisner, Frederic Crozat, Harald
        Hoyer, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Jan Engelhardt, Jan
        Janssen, Jason St. John, Jesper Larsen, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Maciej Wereski, Martin Pitt, Michael
        Olbrich, Ramkumar Ramachandra, Ross Lagerwall, Shawn Landden,
        Thomas H.P. Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Tomasz Torcz, William
        Giokas, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        -- Berlin, 2013-07-23


        * Two new unit types have been introduced:

          Scope units are very similar to service units, however, are
          created out of pre-existing processes -- instead of PID 1
          forking off the processes. By using scope units it is
          possible for system services and applications to group their
          own child processes (worker processes) in a powerful way
          which then maybe used to organize them, or kill them
          together, or apply resource limits on them.

          Slice units may be used to partition system resources in an
          hierarchial fashion and then assign other units to them. By
          default there are now three slices: system.slice (for all
          system services), user.slice (for all user sessions),
          machine.slice (for VMs and containers).

          Slices and scopes have been introduced primarily in
          context of the work to move cgroup handling to a
          single-writer scheme, where only PID 1
          creates/removes/manages cgroups.

        * There's a new concept of "transient" units. In contrast to
          normal units these units are created via an API at runtime,
          not from configuration from disk. More specifically this
          means it is now possible to run arbitrary programs as
          independent services, with all execution parameters passed
          in via bus APIs rather than read from disk. Transient units
          make systemd substantially more dynamic then it ever was,
          and useful as a general batch manager.

        * logind has been updated to make use of scope and slice units
          for managing user sessions. As a user logs in he will get
          his own private slice unit, to which all sessions are added
          as scope units. We also added support for automatically
          adding an instance of user@.service for the user into the
          slice. Effectively logind will no longer create cgroup
          hierarchies on its own now, it will defer entirely to PID 1
          for this by means of scope, service and slice units. Since
          user sessions this way become entities managed by PID 1
          the output of "systemctl" is now a lot more comprehensive.

        * A new mini-daemon "systemd-machined" has been added which
          may be used by virtualization managers to register local
          VMs/containers. nspawn has been updated accordingly, and
          libvirt will be updated shortly. machined will collect a bit
          of meta information about the VMs/containers, and assign
          them their own scope unit (see above). The collected
          meta-data is then made available via the "machinectl" tool,
          and exposed in "ps" and similar tools. machined/machinectl
          is compile-time optional.

        * As discussed earlier, the low-level cgroup configuration
          options ControlGroup=, ControlGroupModify=,
          ControlGroupPersistent=, ControlGroupAttribute= have been
          removed. Please use high-level attribute settings instead as
          well as slice units.

        * A new bus call SetUnitProperties() has been added to alter
          various runtime parameters of a unit. This is primarily
          useful to alter cgroup parameters dynamically in a nice way,
          but will be extended later on to make more properties
          modifiable at runtime. systemctl gained a new set-properties
          command that wraps this call.

        * A new tool "systemd-run" has been added which can be used to
          run arbitrary command lines as transient services or scopes,
          while configuring a number of settings via the command
          line. This tool is currently very basic, however already
          very useful. We plan to extend this tool to even allow
          queuing of execution jobs with time triggers from the
          command line, similar in fashion to "at".

        * nspawn will now inform the user explicitly that kernels with
          audit enabled break containers, and suggest the user to turn
          off audit.

        * Support for detecting the IMA and AppArmor security
          frameworks with ConditionSecurity= has been added.

        * journalctl gained a new "-k" switch for showing only kernel
          messages, mimicking dmesg output; in addition to "--user"
          and "--system" switches for showing only user's own logs
          and system logs.

        * systemd-delta can now show information about drop-in
          snippets extending unit files.

        * libsystemd-bus has been substantially updated but is still
          not available as public API.

        * systemd will now look for the "debug" argument on the kernel
          command line and enable debug logging, similar to
          "systemd.log_level=debug" already did before.

        * "systemctl set-default", "systemctl get-default" has been
          added to configure the symlink, which
          controls what to boot into by default.

        * "systemctl set-log-level" has been added as a convenient
          way to raise and lower systemd logging threshold.

        * "systemd-analyze plot" will now show the time the various
          generators needed for execution, as well as information
          about the unit file loading.

        * libsystemd-journal gained a new sd_journal_open_files() call
          for opening specific journal files. journactl also gained a
          new switch to expose this new functionality. Previously we
          only supported opening all files from a directory, or all
          files from the system, as opening individual files only is
          racy due to journal file rotation.

        * systemd gained the new DefaultEnvironment= setting in
          /etc/systemd/system.conf to set environment variables for
          all services.

        * If a privileged process logs a journal message with the
          OBJECT_PID= field set, then journald will automatically
          augment this with additional OBJECT_UID=, OBJECT_GID=,
          OBJECT_COMM=, OBJECT_EXE=, ... fields. This is useful if
          system services want to log events about specific client
          processes. journactl/systemctl has been updated to make use
          of this information if all log messages regarding a specific
          unit is requested.

        Contributions from: Auke Kok, Chengwei Yang, Colin Walters,
        Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Albers, Daniel Wallace, Dave
        Reisner, David Coppa, David King, David Strauss, Eelco
        Dolstra, Gabriel de Perthuis, Harald Hoyer, Jan Alexander
        Steffens, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jason St. John, Johan
        Heikkilä, Karel Zak, Karol Lewandowski, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marius Vollmer,
        Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich, Michael Tremer,
        Michal Schmidt, Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Nirbheek Chauhan,
        Pierre Neidhardt, Ross Burton, Ross Lagerwall, Sean McGovern,
        Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar,
        Václav Pavlín, Zachary Cook, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek,
        Łukasz Stelmach, 장동준

430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132 1133 1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169 1170 1171 1172 1173 1174 1175 1176 1177 1178 1179 1180 1181 1182 1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 1210 1211 1212 1213 1214 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230 1231 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248 1249 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269 1270 1271 1272 1273 1274 1275 1276 1277 1278 1279 1280 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286 1287 1288 1289 1290 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 1298 1299 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1355 1356 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 1380 1381 1382 1383 1384 1385 1386 1387 1388 1389 1390 1391 1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398 1399 1400 1401 1402 1403 1404 1405 1406 1407 1408 1409 1410 1411 1412 1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1418 1419 1420 1421 1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429 1430 1431 1432 1433 1434 1435 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 1441 1442 1443 1444 1445 1446 1447 1448 1449 1450 1451 1452 1453 1454 1455 1456 1457 1458 1459 1460 1461 1462 1463 1464 1465 1466 1467 1468 1469 1470 1471 1472 1473 1474 1475 1476 1477 1478 1479 1480 1481 1482 1483 1484 1485 1486 1487 1488 1489 1490 1491 1492 1493 1494 1495 1496 1497 1498 1499 1500 1501 1502 1503 1504 1505 1506 1507 1508 1509 1510 1511 1512 1513 1514 1515 1516 1517 1518 1519 1520 1521 1522 1523 1524 1525 1526 1527 1528 1529 1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 1540 1541 1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548 1549 1550 1551 1552 1553 1554 1555 1556 1557 1558 1559 1560 1561 1562 1563 1564 1565 1566 1567 1568 1569 1570 1571 1572 1573 1574 1575 1576 1577 1578 1579 1580 1581 1582 1583 1584 1585 1586 1587 1588 1589 1590 1591 1592 1593 1594 1595 1596 1597 1598 1599 1600 1601 1602 1603 1604 1605 1606 1607 1608 1609 1610 1611 1612 1613 1614 1615 1616 1617 1618 1619 1620 1621 1622 1623 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1629 1630 1631 1632 1633 1634 1635 1636 1637 1638 1639 1640 1641 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646 1647 1648 1649 1650 1651 1652 1653 1654 1655 1656 1657 1658 1659 1660 1661 1662 1663 1664 1665 1666 1667 1668 1669 1670 1671 1672 1673 1674 1675 1676 1677 1678 1679 1680 1681 1682 1683 1684 1685 1686 1687 1688 1689 1690 1691 1692 1693 1694 1695 1696 1697 1698 1699 1700 1701 1702 1703 1704 1705 1706 1707 1708 1709 1710 1711 1712 1713 1714 1715 1716 1717 1718 1719 1720 1721 1722 1723 1724 1725 1726 1727 1728 1729 1730 1731 1732 1733 1734 1735 1736 1737 1738 1739 1740 1741 1742 1743 1744 1745 1746 1747 1748 1749 1750 1751 1752 1753 1754 1755 1756 1757 1758 1759 1760 1761 1762 1763 1764 1765 1766 1767 1768 1769 1770 1771 1772 1773 1774 1775 1776 1777 1778 1779 1780 1781 1782 1783 1784 1785 1786 1787 1788 1789 1790 1791 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040 2041 2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047 2048 2049 2050 2051 2052 2053 2054 2055 2056 2057 2058 2059 2060 2061 2062 2063 2064 2065 2066 2067 2068 2069 2070 2071 2072 2073 2074 2075 2076 2077 2078 2079 2080 2081 2082 2083 2084 2085 2086 2087 2088 2089 2090 2091 2092 2093 2094 2095 2096 2097 2098 2099 2100 2101 2102 2103 2104 2105 2106 2107 2108 2109 2110 2111 2112 2113 2114 2115 2116 2117 2118 2119 2120 2121 2122 2123 2124 2125 2126 2127 2128 2129 2130 2131 2132 2133 2134 2135 2136 2137 2138 2139 2140 2141 2142 2143 2144 2145 2146 2147 2148 2149 2150 2151 2152 2153 2154 2155 2156 2157 2158 2159 2160 2161 2162 2163 2164 2165 2166 2167 2168 2169 2170 2171 2172 2173 2174 2175 2176 2177 2178 2179 2180 2181 2182 2183 2184 2185 2186 2187 2188 2189 2190 2191 2192 2193 2194 2195 2196 2197 2198 2199 2200 2201 2202 2203 2204 2205 2206 2207 2208 2209 2210 2211 2212 2213 2214 2215 2216 2217 2218 2219 2220 2221 2222 2223 2224 2225 2226 2227

        * The Python bindings gained some minimal support for the APIs
          exposed by libsystemd-logind.

        * ConditionSecurity= gained support for detecting SMACK. Since
          this condition already supports SELinux and AppArmor we only
          miss IMA for this. Patches welcome!

        Contributions from: Karol Lewandowski, Lennart Poettering,
        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek


        * systemd-nspawn will now create /etc/resolv.conf if
          necessary, before bind-mounting the host's file onto it.

        * systemd-nspawn will now store meta information about a
          container on the container's cgroup as extended attribute
          fields, including the root directory.

        * The cgroup hierarchy has been reworked in many ways. All
          objects any of the components systemd creates in the cgroup
          tree are now suffixed. More specifically, user sessions are
          now placed in cgroups suffixed with ".session", users in
          cgroups suffixed with ".user", and nspawn containers in
          cgroups suffixed with ".nspawn". Furthermore, all cgroup
          names are now escaped in a simple scheme to avoid collision
          of userspace object names with kernel filenames. This work
          is preparation for making these objects relocatable in the
          cgroup tree, in order to allow easy resource partitioning of
          these objects without causing naming conflicts.

        * systemctl list-dependencies gained the new switches
          --plain, --reverse, --after and --before.

        * systemd-inhibit now shows the process name of processes that
          have taken an inhibitor lock.

        * nss-myhostname will now also resolve "localhost"
          implicitly. This makes /etc/hosts an optional file and
          nicely handles that on IPv6 ::1 maps to both "localhost" and
          the local hostname.

        * gained a new call
          sd_get_machine_names() to enumerate running containers and
          VMs (currently only supported by very new libvirt and
          nspawn). sd_login_monitor can now be used to watch
          VMs/containers coming and going.

        * .include is not allowed recursively anymore, and only in
          unit files. Usually it is better to use drop-in snippets in
          .d/*.conf anyway, as introduced with systemd 198.

        * systemd-analyze gained a new "critical-chain" command that
          determines the slowest chain of units run during system
          boot-up. It is very useful for tracking down where
          optimizing boot time is the most beneficial.

        * systemd will no longer allow manipulating service paths in
          the name=systemd:/system cgroup tree using ControlGroup= in
          units. (But is still fine with it in all other dirs.)

        * There's a new systemd-nspawn@.service service file that may
          be used to easily run nspawn containers as system
          services. With the container's root directory in
          /var/lib/container/foobar it is now sufficient to run
          "systemctl start systemd-nspawn@foobar.service" to boot it.

        * systemd-cgls gained a new parameter "--machine" to list only
          the processes within a certain container.

        * ConditionSecurity= now can check for "apparmor". We still
          are lacking checks for SMACK and IMA for this condition
          check though. Patches welcome!

        * A new configuration file /etc/systemd/sleep.conf has been
          added that may be used to configure which kernel operation
          systemd is supposed to execute when "suspend", "hibernate"
          or "hybrid-sleep" is requested. This makes the new kernel
          "freeze" state accessible to the user.

        * ENV{SYSTEMD_WANTS} in udev rules will now implicitly escape
          the passed argument if applicable.

        Contributions from: Auke Kok, Colin Guthrie, Colin Walters,
        Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner,
        Evangelos Foutras, Greg Kroah-Hartman, Harald Hoyer, Josh
        Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn,
        MUNEDA Takahiro, Mantas Mikulėnas, Mirco Tischler, Nathaniel
        Chen, Nirbheek Chauhan, Ronny Chevalier, Ross Lagerwall, Tom
        Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar, Ville Skyttä, Zbigniew


        * The output of 'systemctl list-jobs' got some polishing. The
          '--type=' argument may now be passed more than once. A new
          command 'systemctl list-sockets' has been added which shows
          a list of kernel sockets systemd is listening on with the
          socket units they belong to, plus the units these socket
          units activate.

        * The experimental libsystemd-bus library got substantial
          updates to work in conjunction with the (also experimental)
          kdbus kernel project. It works well enough to exchange
          messages with some sophistication. Note that kdbus is not
          ready yet, and the library is mostly an elaborate test case
          for now, and not installable.

        * systemd gained a new unit 'systemd-static-nodes.service'
          that generates static device nodes earlier during boot, and
          can run in conjunction with udev.

        * libsystemd-login gained a new call sd_pid_get_user_unit()
          to retrieve the user systemd unit a process is running
          in. This is useful for systems where systemd is used as
          session manager.

        * systemd-nspawn now places all containers in the new /machine
          top-level cgroup directory in the name=systemd
          hierarchy. libvirt will soon do the same, so that we get a
          uniform separation of /system, /user and /machine for system
          services, user processes and containers/virtual
          machines. This new cgroup hierarchy is also useful to stick
          stable names to specific container instances, which can be
          recognized later this way (this name may be controlled
          via systemd-nspawn's new -M switch). libsystemd-login also
          gained a new call sd_pid_get_machine_name() to retrieve the
          name of the container/VM a specific process belongs to.

        * bootchart can now store its data in the journal.

        * libsystemd-journal gained a new call
          sd_journal_add_conjunction() for AND expressions to the
          matching logic. This can be used to express more complex
          logical expressions.

        * journactl can now take multiple --unit= and --user-unit=

        * The cryptsetup logic now understands the "luks.key=" kernel
          command line switch for specifying a file to read the
          decryption key from. Also, if a configured key file is not
          found the tool will now automatically fall back to prompting
          the user.

        * Python systemd.journal module was updated to wrap recently
          added functions from libsystemd-journal. The interface was
          changed to bring the low level interface in s.j._Reader
          closer to the C API, and the high level interface in
          s.j.Reader was updated to wrap and convert all data about
          an entry.

        Contributions from: Anatol Pomozov, Auke Kok, Harald Hoyer,
        Henrik Grindal Bakken, Josh Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas Marius Vollmer,
        Martin Jansa, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michal Schmidt,
        Mirco Tischler, Pali Rohar, Simon Peeters, Steven Hiscocks,
        Tom Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek


        * journalctl --update-catalog now understands a new --root=
          option to operate on catalogs found in a different root

        * During shutdown after systemd has terminated all running
          services a final killing loop kills all remaining left-over
          processes. We will now print the name of these processes
          when we send SIGKILL to them, since this usually indicates a

        * If /etc/crypttab refers to password files stored on
          configured mount points automatic dependencies will now be
          generated to ensure the specific mount is established first
          before the key file is attempted to be read.

        * 'systemctl status' will now show information about the
          network sockets a socket unit is listening on.

        * 'systemctl status' will also shown information about any
          drop-in configuration file for units. (Drop-In configuration
          files in this context are files such as

        * systemd-cgtop now optionally shows summed up CPU times of
          cgroups. Press '%' while running cgtop to switch between
          percentage and absolute mode. This is useful to determine
          which cgroups use up the most CPU time over the entire
          runtime of the system. systemd-cgtop has also been updated
          to be 'pipeable' for processing with further shell tools.

        * 'hostnamectl set-hostname' will now allow setting of FQDN

        * The formatting and parsing of time span values has been
          changed. The parser now understands fractional expressions
          such as "5.5h". The formatter will now output fractional
          expressions for all time spans under 1min, i.e. "5.123456s"
          rather than "5s 123ms 456us". For time spans under 1s
          millisecond values are shown, for those under 1ms
          microsecond values are shown. This should greatly improve
          all time-related output of systemd.

        * libsystemd-login and libsystemd-journal gained new
          functions for querying the poll() events mask and poll()
          timeout value for integration into arbitrary event

        * localectl gained the ability to list available X11 keymaps
          (models, layouts, variants, options).

        * 'systemd-analyze dot' gained the ability to filter for
          specific units via shell-style globs, to create smaller,
          more useful graphs. I.e. it's now possible to create simple
          graphs of all the dependencies between only target units, or
          of all units that Avahi has dependencies with.

        Contributions from: Cristian Rodríguez, Dr. Tilmann Bubeck,
        Harald Hoyer, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Kay Sievers, Kelly
        Anderson, Koen Kooi, Lennart Poettering, Maksim Melnikau,
        Marc-Antoine Perennou, Marius Vollmer, Martin Pitt, Michal
        Schmidt, Oleksii Shevchuk, Ronny Chevalier, Simon McVittie,
        Steven Hiscocks, Thomas Weißschuh, Umut Tezduyar, Václav
        Pavlín, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Łukasz Stelmach


        * The boot-time readahead implementation for rotating media
          will now read the read-ahead data in multiple passes which
          consist of all read requests made in equidistant time
          intervals. This means instead of strictly reading read-ahead
          data in its physical order on disk we now try to find a
          middle ground between physical and access time order.

        * /etc/os-release files gained a new BUILD_ID= field for usage
          on operating systems that provide continuous builds of OS

        Contributions from: Auke Kok, Eelco Dolstra, Kay Sievers,
        Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Martin Pitt, Václav Pavlín
        William Douglas, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek


        * systemd-python gained an API exposing libsystemd-daemon.

        * The SMACK setup logic gained support for uploading CIPSO
          security policy.

        * Behaviour of PrivateTmp=, ReadWriteDirectories=,
          ReadOnlyDirectories= and InaccessibleDirectories= has
          changed. The private /tmp and /var/tmp directories are now
          shared by all processes of a service (which means
          ExecStartPre= may now leave data in /tmp that ExecStart= of
          the same service can still access). When a service is
          stopped its temporary directories are immediately deleted
          (normal clean-up with tmpfiles is still done in addition to
          this though).

        * By default, systemd will now set a couple of sysctl
          variables in the kernel: the safe sysrq options are turned
          on, IP route verification is turned on, and source routing
          disabled. The recently added hardlink and softlink
          protection of the kernel is turned on. These settings should
          be reasonably safe, and good defaults for all new systems.

        * The predictable network naming logic may now be turned off
          with a new kernel command line switch: net.ifnames=0.

        * A new libsystemd-bus module has been added that implements a
          pretty complete D-Bus client library. For details see:

        * journald will now explicitly flush the journal files to disk
          at the latest 5min after each write. The file will then also
          be marked offline until the next write. This should increase
          reliability in case of a crash. The synchronization delay
          can be configured via SyncIntervalSec= in journald.conf.

        * There's a new unit that can be used
          to pull in specific services when at least one remote file
          system is to be mounted.

        * There are new targets and as
          canonical targets to pull user timer and path units in
          from. This complements with a similar
          purpose for socket units.

        * libudev gained a new call udev_device_set_attribute_value()
          to set sysfs attributes of a device.

        * The udev daemon now sets the default number of worker
          processes executed in parallel based on the number of available
          CPUs instead of the amount of available RAM. This is supposed
          to provide a more reliable default and limit a too aggressive
          paralellism for setups with 1000s of devices connected.

        Contributions from: Auke Kok, Colin Walters, Cristian
        Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Dave Reisner, Frederic Crozat, Hannes
        Reinecke, Harald Hoyer, Jan Alexander Steffens, Jan
        Engelhardt, Josh Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering,
        Mantas Mikulėnas, Martin Pitt, Mathieu Bridon, Michael Biebl,
        Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Miklos Vajna, Nathaniel Chen,
        Oleksii Shevchuk, Ozan Çağlayan, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
        Andersen, Tollef Fog Heen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar,
        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek


        * Configuration of unit files may now be extended via drop-in
          files without having to edit/override the unit files
          themselves. More specifically, if the administrator wants to
          change one value for a service file foobar.service he can
          now do so by dropping in a configuration snippet into
          /etc/systemd/system/foobar.service.d/*.conf. The unit logic
          will load all these snippets and apply them on top of the
          main unit configuration file, possibly extending or
          overriding its settings. Using these drop-in snippets is
          generally nicer than the two earlier options for changing
          unit files locally: copying the files from
          /usr/lib/systemd/system/ to /etc/systemd/system/ and editing
          them there; or creating a new file in /etc/systemd/system/
          that incorporates the original one via ".include". Drop-in
          snippets into these .d/ directories can be placed in any
          directory systemd looks for units in, and the usual
          overriding semantics between /usr/lib, /etc and /run apply
          for them too.

        * Most unit file settings which take lists of items can now be
          reset by assigning the empty string to them. For example,
          normally, settings such as Environment=FOO=BAR append a new
          environment variable assignment to the environment block,
          each time they are used. By assigning Environment= the empty
          string the environment block can be reset to empty. This is
          particularly useful with the .d/*.conf drop-in snippets
          mentioned above, since this adds the ability to reset list
          settings from vendor unit files via these drop-ins.

        * systemctl gained a new "list-dependencies" command for
          listing the dependencies of a unit recursively.

        * Inhibitors are now honored and listed by "systemctl
          suspend", "systemctl poweroff" (and similar) too, not only
          GNOME. These commands will also list active sessions by
          other users.

        * Resource limits (as exposed by the various control group
          controllers) can now be controlled dynamically at runtime
          for all units. More specifically, you can now use a command
          like "systemctl set-cgroup-attr foobar.service cpu.shares
          2000" to alter the CPU shares a specific service gets. These
          settings are stored persistently on disk, and thus allow the
          administrator to easily adjust the resource usage of
          services with a few simple commands. This dynamic resource
          management logic is also available to other programs via the
          bus. Almost any kernel cgroup attribute and controller is

        * systemd-vconsole-setup will now copy all font settings to
          all allocated VTs, where it previously applied them only to
          the foreground VT.

        * libsystemd-login gained the new sd_session_get_tty() API

        * This release drops support for a few legacy or
          distribution-specific LSB facility names when parsing init
          scripts: $x-display-manager, $mail-transfer-agent,
          $mail-transport-agent, $mail-transfer-agent, $smtp,
          $null. Also, the unit backing
          this has been removed. Distributions which want to retain
          compatibility with this should carry the burden for
          supporting this themselves and patch support for these back
          in, if they really need to. Also, the facilities $syslog and
          $local_fs are now ignored, since systemd does not support
          early-boot LSB init scripts anymore, and these facilities
          are implied anyway for normal services. has
          also been removed.

        * There are new bus calls on PID1's Manager object for
          cancelling jobs, and removing snapshot units. Previously,
          both calls were only available on the Job and Snapshot
          objects themselves.

        * systemd-journal-gatewayd gained SSL support.

        * The various "environment" files, such as /etc/locale.conf
          now support continuation lines with a backslash ("\") as
          last character in the line, similar in style (but different)
          to how this is supported in shells.

        * For normal user processes the _SYSTEMD_USER_UNIT= field is
          now implicitly appended to every log entry logged. systemctl
          has been updated to filter by this field when operating on a
          user systemd instance.

        * nspawn will now implicitly add the CAP_AUDIT_WRITE and
          CAP_AUDIT_CONTROL capabilities to the capabilities set for
          the container. This makes it easier to boot unmodified
          Fedora systems in a container, which however still requires
          audit=0 to be passed on the kernel command line. Auditing in
          kernel and userspace is unfortunately still too broken in
          context of containers, hence we recommend compiling it out
          of the kernel or using audit=0. Hopefully this will be fixed
          one day for good in the kernel.

        * nspawn gained the new --bind= and --bind-ro= parameters to
          bind mount specific directories from the host into the

        * nspawn will now mount its own devpts file system instance
          into the container, in order not to leak pty devices from
          the host into the container.

        * systemd will now read the firmware boot time performance
          information from the EFI variables, if the used boot loader
          supports this, and takes it into account for boot performance
          analysis via "systemd-analyze". This is currently supported
          only in conjunction with Gummiboot, but could be supported
          by other boot loaders too. For details see:

        * A new generator has been added that automatically mounts the
          EFI System Partition (ESP) to /boot, if that directory
          exists, is empty, and no other file system has been
          configured to be mounted there.

        * logind will now send out PrepareForSleep(false) out
          unconditionally, after coming back from suspend. This may be
          used by applications as asynchronous notification for
          system resume events.

        * "systemctl unlock-sessions" has been added, that allows
          unlocking the screens of all user sessions at once, similar
          how "systemctl lock-sessions" already locked all users
          sessions. This is backed by a new D-Bus call UnlockSessions().

        * "loginctl seat-status" will now show the master device of a
          seat. (i.e. the device of a seat that needs to be around for
          the seat to be considered available, usually the graphics

        * tmpfiles gained a new "X" line type, that allows
          configuration of files and directories (with wildcards) that
          shall be excluded from automatic cleanup ("aging").

        * udev default rules set the device node permissions now only
          at "add" events, and do not change them any longer with a
          later "change" event.

        * The log messages for lid events and power/sleep keypresses
          now carry a message ID.

        * We now have a substantially larger unit test suite, but this
          continues to be work in progress.

        * udevadm hwdb gained a new --root= parameter to change the
          root directory to operate relative to.

        * logind will now issue a background sync() request to the kernel
          early at shutdown, so that dirty buffers are flushed to disk early
          instead of at the last moment, in order to optimize shutdown
          times a little.

        * A new bootctl tool has been added that is an interface for
          certain boot loader operations. This is currently a preview
          and is likely to be extended into a small mechanism daemon
          like timedated, localed, hostnamed, and can be used by
          graphical UIs to enumerate available boot options, and
          request boot into firmware operations.

        * systemd-bootchart has been relicensed to LGPLv2.1+ to match
          the rest of the package. It also has been updated to work
          correctly in initrds.

        * Policykit previously has been runtime optional, and is now
          also compile time optional via a configure switch.

        * systemd-analyze has been reimplemented in C. Also "systemctl
          dot" has moved into systemd-analyze.

        * "systemctl status" with no further parameters will now print
          the status of all active or failed units.

        * Operations such as "systemctl start" can now be executed
          with a new mode "--irreversible" which may be used to queue
          operations that cannot accidentally be reversed by a later
          job queuing. This is by default used to make shutdown
          requests more robust.

        * The Python API of systemd now gained a new module for
          reading journal files.

        * A new tool kernel-install has been added that can install
          kernel images according to the Boot Loader Specification:

        * Boot time console output has been improved to provide
          animated boot time output for hanging jobs.

        * A new tool systemd-activate has been added which can be used
          to test socket activation with, directly from the command
          line. This should make it much easier to test and debug
          socket activation in daemons.

        * journalctl gained a new "--reverse" (or -r) option to show
          journal output in reverse order (i.e. newest line first).

        * journalctl gained a new "--pager-end" (or -e) option to jump
          to immediately jump to the end of the journal in the
          pager. This is only supported in conjunction with "less".

        * journalctl gained a new "--user-unit=" option, that works
          similar to "--unit=" but filters for user units rather than
          system units.

        * A number of unit files to ease adoption of systemd in
          initrds has been added. This moves some minimal logic from
          the various initrd implementations into systemd proper.

        * The journal files are now owned by a new group
          "systemd-journal", which exists specifically to allow access
          to the journal, and nothing else. Previously, we used the
          "adm" group for that, which however possibly covers more
          than just journal/log file access. This new group is now
          already used by systemd-journal-gatewayd to ensure this
          daemon gets access to the journal files and as little else
          as possible. Note that "make install" will also set FS ACLs
          up for /var/log/journal to give "adm" and "wheel" read
          access to it, in addition to "systemd-journal" which owns
          the journal files. We recommend that packaging scripts also
          add read access to "adm" + "wheel" to /var/log/journal, and
          all existing/future journal files. To normal users and
          administrators little changes, however packagers need to
          ensure to create the "systemd-journal" system group at
          package installation time.

        * The systemd-journal-gatewayd now runs as unprivileged user
          systemd-journal-gateway:systemd-journal-gateway. Packaging
          scripts need to create these system user/group at
          installation time.

        * timedated now exposes a new boolean property CanNTP that
          indicates whether a local NTP service is available or not.

        * systemd-detect-virt will now also detect xen PVs

        * The pstore file system is now mounted by default, if it is

        * In addition to the SELinux and IMA policies we will now also
          load SMACK policies at early boot.

        Contributions from: Adel Gadllah, Aleksander Morgado, Auke
        Kok, Ayan George, Bastien Nocera, Colin Walters, Daniel Buch,
        Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, David Strauss,
        Eelco Dolstra, Enrico Scholz, Frederic Crozat, Harald Hoyer,
        Jan Janssen, Jonathan Callen, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering,
        Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine Perennou, Martin
        Pitt, Mauro Dreissig, Max F. Albrecht, Michael Biebl, Michael
        Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Michal Vyskocil,
        Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Mirco Tischler, Nathaniel Chen, Nestor
        Ovroy, Oleksii Shevchuk, Paul W. Frields, Piotr Drąg, Rob
        Clark, Ryan Lortie, Simon McVittie, Simon Peeters, Steven
        Hiscocks, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tollef Fog Heen, Tom
        Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar, William Giokas, Zbigniew
        Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Zeeshan Ali (Khattak)


        * Timer units now support calendar time events in addition to
          monotonic time events. That means you can now trigger a unit
          based on a calendar time specification such as "Thu,Fri
          2013-*-1,5 11:12:13" which refers to 11:12:13 of the first
          or fifth day of any month of the year 2013, given that it is
          a thursday or friday. This brings timer event support
          considerably closer to cron's capabilities. For details on
          the supported calendar time specification language see

        * udev now supports a number of different naming policies for
          network interfaces for predictable names, and a combination
          of these policies is now the default. Please see this wiki
          document for details:

        * Auke Kok's bootchart implementation has been added to the
          systemd tree. It's an optional component that can graph the
          boot in quite some detail. It's one of the best bootchart
          implementations around and minimal in its code and

        * nss-myhostname has been integrated into the systemd source
          tree. nss-myhostname guarantees that the local hostname
          always stays resolvable via NSS. It has been a weak
          requirement of systemd-hostnamed since a long time, and
          since its code is actually trivial we decided to just
          include it in systemd's source tree. It can be turned off
          with a configure switch.

        * The read-ahead logic is now capable of properly detecting
          whether a btrfs file system is on SSD or rotating media, in
          order to optimize the read-ahead scheme. Previously, it was
          only capable of detecting this on traditional file systems
          such as ext4.

        * In udev, additional device properties are now read from the
          IAB in addition to the OUI database. Also, Bluetooth company
          identities are attached to the devices as well.

        * In service files %U may be used as specifier that is
          replaced by the configured user name of the service.

        * nspawn may now be invoked without a controlling TTY. This
          makes it suitable for invocation as its own service. This
          may be used to set up a simple containerized server system
          using only core OS tools.

        * systemd and nspawn can now accept socket file descriptors
          when they are started for socket activation. This enables
          implementation of socket activated nspawn
          containers. i.e. think about autospawning an entire OS image
          when the first SSH or HTTP connection is received. We expect
          that similar functionality will also be added to libvirt-lxc

        * journalctl will now suppress ANSI color codes when
          presenting log data.

        * systemctl will no longer show control group information for
          a unit if a the control group is empty anyway.

        * logind can now automatically suspend/hibernate/shutdown the
          system on idle.

        * /etc/machine-info and hostnamed now also expose the chassis
          type of the system. This can be used to determine whether
          the local system is a laptop, desktop, handset or
          tablet. This information may either be configured by the
          user/vendor or is automatically determined from ACPI and DMI
          information if possible.

        * A number of PolicyKit actions are now bound together with
          "imply" rules. This should simplify creating UIs because
          many actions will now authenticate similar ones as well.

        * Unit files learnt a new condition ConditionACPower= which
          may be used to conditionalize a unit depending on whether an
          AC power source is connected or not, of whether the system
          is running on battery power.

        * systemctl gained a new "is-failed" verb that may be used in
          shell scripts and suchlike to check whether a specific unit
          is in the "failed" state.

        * The EnvironmentFile= setting in unit files now supports file
          globbing, and can hence be used to easily read a number of
          environment files at once.

        * systemd will no longer detect and recognize specific
          distributions. All distribution-specific #ifdeffery has been
          removed, systemd is now fully generic and
          distribution-agnostic. Effectively, not too much is lost as
          a lot of the code is still accessible via explicit configure
          switches. However, support for some distribution specific
          legacy configuration file formats has been dropped. We
          recommend distributions to simply adopt the configuration
          files everybody else uses now and convert the old
          configuration from packaging scripts. Most distributions
          already did that. If that's not possible or desirable,
          distributions are welcome to forward port the specific
          pieces of code locally from the git history.

        * When logging a message about a unit systemd will now always
          log the unit name in the message meta data.

        * localectl will now also discover system locale data that is
          not stored in locale archives, but directly unpacked.

        * logind will no longer unconditionally use framebuffer
          devices as seat masters, i.e. as devices that are required
          to be existing before a seat is considered preset. Instead,
          it will now look for all devices that are tagged as
          "seat-master" in udev. By default framebuffer devices will
          be marked as such, but depending on local systems other
          devices might be marked as well. This may be used to
          integrate graphics cards using closed source drivers (such
          as NVidia ones) more nicely into logind. Note however, that
          we recommend using the open source NVidia drivers instead,
          and no udev rules for the closed-source drivers will be
          shipped from us upstream.

        Contributions from: Adam Williamson, Alessandro Crismani, Auke
        Kok, Colin Walters, Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner, David
        Herrmann, David Strauss, Dimitrios Apostolou, Eelco Dolstra,
        Eric Benoit, Giovanni Campagna, Hannes Reinecke, Henrik
        Grindal Bakken, Hermann Gausterer, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann,
        Martin Pitt, Matthew Monaco, Michael Biebl, Michael Terry,
        Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Oleg
        Samarin, Pekka Lundstrom, Philip Nilsson, Ramkumar
        Ramachandra, Richard Yao, Robert Millan, Sami Kerola, Shawn
        Landden, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Thomas Jarosch,
        Tollef Fog Heen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar, Zbigniew


        * udev gained support for loading additional device properties
          from an indexed database that is keyed by vendor/product IDs
          and similar device identifiers. For the beginning this
          "hwdb" is populated with data from the well-known PCI and
          USB database, but also includes PNP, ACPI and OID data. In
          the longer run this indexed database shall grow into
          becoming the one central database for non-essential
          userspace device metadata. Previously, data from the PCI/USB
          database was only attached to select devices, since the
          lookup was a relatively expensive operation due to O(n) time
          complexity (with n being the number of entries in the
          database). Since this is now O(1), we decided to add in this
          data for all devices where this is available, by
          default. Note that the indexed database needs to be rebuilt
          when new data files are installed. To achieve this you need
          to update your packaging scripts to invoke "udevadm hwdb
          --update" after installation of hwdb data files. For
          RPM-based distributions we introduced the new
          %udev_hwdb_update macro for this purpose.

        * The Journal gained support for the "Message Catalog", an
          indexed database to link up additional information with
          journal entries. For further details please check:

          The indexed message catalog database also needs to be
          rebuilt after installation of message catalog files. Use
          "journalctl --update-catalog" for this. For RPM-based
          distributions we introduced the %journal_catalog_update
          macro for this purpose.

        * The Python Journal bindings gained support for the standard
          Python logging framework.

        * The Journal API gained new functions for checking whether
          the underlying file system of a journal file is capable of
          properly reporting file change notifications, or whether
          applications that want to reflect journal changes "live"
          need to recheck journal files continuously in appropriate
          time intervals.

        * It is now possible to set the "age" field for tmpfiles
          entries to 0, indicating that files matching this entry
          shall always be removed when the directories are cleaned up.

        * coredumpctl gained a new "gdb" verb which invokes gdb
          right-away on the selected coredump.

        * There's now support for "hybrid sleep" on kernels that
          support this, in addition to "suspend" and "hibernate". Use
          "systemctl hybrid-sleep" to make use of this.

        * logind's HandleSuspendKey= setting (and related settings)
          now gained support for a new "lock" setting to simply
          request the screen lock on all local sessions, instead of
          actually executing a suspend or hibernation.

        * systemd will now mount the EFI variables file system by

        * Socket units now gained support for configuration of the
          SMACK security label.

        * timedatectl will now output the time of the last and next
          daylight saving change.

        * We dropped support for various legacy and distro-specific
          concepts, such as insserv, early-boot SysV services
          (i.e. those for non-standard runlevels such as 'b' or 'S')
          or ArchLinux /etc/rc.conf support. We recommend the
          distributions who still need support this to either continue
          to maintain the necessary patches downstream, or find a
          different solution. (Talk to us if you have questions!)

        * Various systemd components will now bypass PolicyKit checks
          for root and otherwise handle properly if PolicyKit is not
          found to be around. This should fix most issues for
          PolicyKit-less systems. Quite frankly this should have been
          this way since day one. It is absolutely our intention to
          make systemd work fine on PolicyKit-less systems, and we
          consider it a bug if something doesn't work as it should if
          PolicyKit is not around.

        * For embedded systems it is now possible to build udev and
          systemd without blkid and/or kmod support.

        * "systemctl switch-root" is now capable of switching root
          more than once. I.e. in addition to transitions from the
          initrd to the host OS it is now possible to transition to
          further OS images from the host. This is useful to implement
          offline updating tools.

        * Various other additions have been made to the RPM macros
          shipped with systemd. Use %udev_rules_update() after
          installing new udev rules files. %_udevhwdbdir,
          %_udevrulesdir, %_journalcatalogdir, %_tmpfilesdir,
          %_sysctldir are now available which resolve to the right
          directories for packages to place various data files in.

        * journalctl gained the new --full switch (in addition to
          --all, to disable ellipsation for long messages.

        Contributions from: Anders Olofsson, Auke Kok, Ben Boeckel,
        Colin Walters, Cosimo Cecchi, Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner,
        Eelco Dolstra, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Kay Sievers,
        Chun-Yi Lee, Lekensteyn, Lennart Poettering, Mantas Mikulėnas,
        Marti Raudsepp, Martin Pitt, Mauro Dreissig, Michael Biebl,
        Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Miklos Vajna, Nis Martensen,
        Oleksii Shevchuk, Olivier Brunel, Ramkumar Ramachandra, Thomas
        Bächler, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Tony
        Camuso, Umut Tezduyar, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek


        * journalctl gained new --since= and --until= switches to
          filter by time. It also now supports nice filtering for
          units via --unit=/-u.

        * Type=oneshot services may use ExecReload= and do the
          right thing.

        * The journal daemon now supports time-based rotation and
          vacuuming, in addition to the usual disk-space based

        * The journal will now index the available field values for
          each field name. This enables clients to show pretty drop
          downs of available match values when filtering. The bash
          completion of journalctl has been updated
          accordingly. journalctl gained a new switch -F to list all
          values a certain field takes in the journal database.

        * More service events are now written as structured messages
          to the journal, and made recognizable via message IDs.

        * The timedated, localed and hostnamed mini-services which
          previously only provided support for changing time, locale
          and hostname settings from graphical DEs such as GNOME now
          also have a minimal (but very useful) text-based client
          utility each. This is probably the nicest way to changing
          these settings from the command line now, especially since
          it lists available options and is fully integrated with bash

        * There's now a new tool "systemd-coredumpctl" to list and
          extract coredumps from the journal.

        * We now install a README each in /var/log/ and
          /etc/rc.d/init.d explaining where the system logs and init
          scripts went. This hopefully should help folks who go to
          that dirs and look into the otherwise now empty void and
          scratch their heads.

        * When user-services are invoked (by systemd --user) the
          $MANAGERPID env var is set to the PID of systemd.

        * SIGRTMIN+24 when sent to a --user instance will now result
          in immediate termination of systemd.

        * gatewayd received numerous feature additions such as a
          "follow" mode, for live syncing and filtering.

        * browse.html now allows filtering and showing detailed
          information on specific entries. Keyboard navigation and
          mouse screen support has been added.

        * gatewayd/journalctl now supports HTML5/JSON
          Server-Sent-Events as output.

        * The SysV init script compatibility logic will now
          heuristically determine whether a script supports the
          "reload" verb, and only then make this available as
          "systemctl reload".

        * "systemctl status --follow" has been removed, use "journalctl
          -u" instead.

        * journald.conf's RuntimeMinSize=, PersistentMinSize= settings
          have been removed since they are hardly useful to be

        * And I'd like to take the opportunity to specifically mention
          Zbigniew for his great contributions. Zbigniew, you rock!

        Contributions from: Andrew Eikum, Christian Hesse, Colin
        Guthrie, Daniel J Walsh, Dave Reisner, Eelco Dolstra, Ferenc
        Wágner, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas
        Mikulėnas, Martin Mikkelsen, Martin Pitt, Michael Olbrich,
        Michael Stapelberg, Michal Schmidt, Sebastian Ott, Thomas
        Bächler, Umut Tezduyar, Will Woods, Wulf C. Krueger, Zbigniew
        Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Сковорода Никита Андреевич


        * If /etc/vconsole.conf is non-existent or empty we will no
          longer load any console font or key map at boot by
          default. Instead the kernel defaults will be left
          intact. This is definitely the right thing to do, as no
          configuration should mean no configuration, and hard-coding
          font names that are different on all archs is probably a bad
          idea. Also, the kernel default key map and font should be
          good enough for most cases anyway, and mostly identical to
          the userspace fonts/key maps we previously overloaded them
          with. If distributions want to continue to default to a
          non-kernel font or key map they should ship a default
          /etc/vconsole.conf with the appropriate contents.

        Contributions from: Colin Walters, Daniel J Walsh, Dave
        Reisner, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Tollef
        Fog Heen, Tom Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek


        * journalctl gained a new --cursor= switch to show entries
          starting from the specified location in the journal.

        * We now enforce a size limit on journal entry fields exported
          with "-o json" in journalctl. Fields larger than 4K will be
          assigned null. This can be turned off with --all.

        * An (optional) journal gateway daemon is now available as
          "systemd-journal-gatewayd.service". This service provides
          access to the journal via HTTP and JSON. This functionality
          will be used to implement live log synchronization in both
          pull and push modes, but has various other users too, such
          as easy log access for debugging of embedded devices. Right
          now it is already useful to retrieve the journal via HTTP:

          # systemctl start systemd-journal-gatewayd.service
          # wget http://localhost:19531/entries

          This will download the journal contents in a
          /var/log/messages compatible format. The same as JSON:

          # curl -H"Accept: application/json" http://localhost:19531/entries

          This service is also accessible via a web browser where a
          single static HTML5 app is served that uses the JSON logic
          to enable the user to do some basic browsing of the
          journal. This will be extended later on. Here's an example
          screenshot of this app in its current state:

        Contributions from: Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Robert
        Milasan, Tom Gundersen


        * The bash completion logic is now available for journalctl

        * We don't mount the "cpuset" controller anymore together with
          "cpu" and "cpuacct", as "cpuset" groups generally cannot be
          started if no parameters are assigned to it. "cpuset" hence
          broke code that assumed it it could create "cpu" groups and
          just start them.

        * journalctl -f will now subscribe to terminal size changes,
          and line break accordingly.

        Contributions from: Dave Reisner, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykrynm, Mirco Tischler, Václav Pavlín


        * nspawn will now create a symlink /etc/localtime in the
          container environment, copying the host's timezone
          setting. Previously this has been done via a bind mount, but
          since symlinks cannot be bind mounted this has now been
          changed to create/update the appropriate symlink.

        * journalctl -n's line number argument is now optional, and
          will default to 10 if omitted.

        * journald will now log the maximum size the journal files may
          take up on disk. This is particularly useful if the default
          built-in logic of determining this parameter from the file
          system size is used. Use "systemctl status
          systemd-journald.service" to see this information.

        * The multi-seat X wrapper tool has been stripped down. As X
          is now capable of enumerating graphics devices via udev in a
          seat-aware way the wrapper is not strictly necessary
          anymore. A stripped down temporary stop-gap is still shipped
          until the upstream display managers have been updated to
          fully support the new X logic. Expect this wrapper to be
          removed entirely in one of the next releases.

        * HandleSleepKey= in logind.conf has been split up into
          HandleSuspendKey= and HandleHibernateKey=. The old setting
          is not available anymore. X11 and the kernel are
          distuingishing between these keys and we should too. This
          also means the inhibition lock for these keys has been split
          into two.

        Contributions from: Dave Airlie, Eelco Dolstra, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Václav Pavlín


        * Whenever a unit changes state we'll now log this to the
          journal and show along the unit's own log output in
          "systemctl status".

        * ConditionPathIsMountPoint= can now properly detect bind
          mount points too. (Previously, a bind mount of one file
          system to another place in the same file system could not be
          detected as mount, since they shared struct stat's st_dev

        * We will now mount the cgroup controllers cpu, cpuacct,
          cpuset and the controllers net_cls, net_prio together by

        * nspawn containers will now have a virtualized boot
          ID. (i.e. /proc/sys/kernel/random/boot_id is now mounted
          over with a randomized ID at container initialization). This
          has the effect of making "journalctl -b" do the right thing
          in a container.

        * The JSON output journal serialization has been updated not
          to generate "endless" list objects anymore, but rather one
          JSON object per line. This is more in line how most JSON
          parsers expect JSON objects. The new output mode
          "json-pretty" has been added to provide similar output, but
          neatly aligned for readability by humans.

        * We dropped all explicit sync() invocations in the shutdown
          code. The kernel does this implicitly anyway in the kernel
          reboot() syscall. halt(8)'s -n option is now a compatibility

        * We now support virtualized reboot() in containers, as
          supported by newer kernels. We will fall back to exit() if
          CAP_SYS_REBOOT is not available to the container. Also,
          nspawn makes use of this now and will actually reboot the
          container if the containerized OS asks for that.

        * journalctl will only show local log output by default
          now. Use --merge (-m) to show remote log output, too.

        * libsystemd-journal gained the new sd_journal_get_usage()
          call to determine the current disk usage of all journal
          files. This is exposed in the new "journalctl --disk-usage"

        * journald gained a new configuration setting SplitMode= in
          journald.conf which may be used to control how user journals
          are split off. See journald.conf(5) for details.

        * A new condition type ConditionFileNotEmpty= has been added.

        * tmpfiles' "w" lines now support file globbing, to write
          multiple files at once.

        * We added Python bindings for the journal submission
          APIs. More Python APIs for a number of selected APIs will
          likely follow. Note that we intend to add native bindings
          only for the Python language, as we consider it common
          enough to deserve bindings shipped within systemd. There are
          various projects outside of systemd that provide bindings
          for languages such as PHP or Lua.

        * Many conditions will now resolve specifiers such as %i. In
          addition, PathChanged= and related directives of .path units
          now support specifiers as well.

        * There's now a new RPM macro definition for the system preset
          dir: %_presetdir.

        * journald will now warn if it can't forward a message to the
          syslog daemon because it's socket is full.

        * timedated will no longer write or process /etc/timezone,
          except on Debian. As we do not support late mounted /usr
          anymore /etc/localtime always being a symlink is now safe,
          and hence the information in /etc/timezone is not necessary

        * logind will now always reserve one VT for a text getty (VT6
          by default). Previously if more than 6 X sessions where
          started they took up all the VTs with auto-spawned gettys,
          so that no text gettys were available anymore.

        * udev will now automatically inform the btrfs kernel logic
          about btrfs RAID components showing up. This should make
          simple hotplug based btrfs RAID assembly work.

        * PID 1 will now increase its RLIMIT_NOFILE to 64K by default
          (but not for its children which will stay at the kernel
          default). This should allow setups with a lot more listening

        * systemd will now always pass the configured timezone to the
          kernel at boot. timedated will do the same when the timezone
          is changed.

        * logind's inhibition logic has been updated. By default,
          logind will now handle the lid switch, the power and sleep
          keys all the time, even in graphical sessions. If DEs want
          to handle these events on their own they should take the new
          handle-power-key, handle-sleep-key and handle-lid-switch
          inhibitors during their runtime. A simple way to achiveve
          that is to invoke the DE wrapped in an invocation of:

          systemd-inhibit --what=handle-power-key:handle-sleep-key:handle-lid-switch ...

        * Access to unit operations is now checked via SELinux taking
          the unit file label and client process label into account.

        * systemd will now notify the administrator in the journal
          when he over-mounts a non-empty directory.

        * There are new specifiers that are resolved in unit files,
          for the host name (%H), the machine ID (%m) and the boot ID

        Contributions from: Allin Cottrell, Auke Kok, Brandon Philips,
        Colin Guthrie, Colin Walters, Daniel J Walsh, Dave Reisner,
        Eelco Dolstra, Jan Engelhardt, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lucas De Marchi, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas,
        Martin Pitt, Matthias Clasen, Michael Olbrich, Pierre Schmitz,
        Shawn Landden, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen,
        Václav Pavlín, Yin Kangkai, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek


        * Support for reading structured kernel messages from
          /dev/kmsg has now been added and is enabled by default.

        * Support for reading kernel messages from /proc/kmsg has now
          been removed. If you want kernel messages in the journal
          make sure to run a recent kernel (>= 3.5) that supports
          reading structured messages from /dev/kmsg (see
          above). /proc/kmsg is now exclusive property of classic
          syslog daemons again.

        * The libudev API gained the new
          udev_device_new_from_device_id() call.

        * The logic for file system namespace (ReadOnlyDirectory=,
          ReadWriteDirectoy=, PrivateTmp=) has been reworked not to
          require pivot_root() anymore. This means fewer temporary
          directories are created below /tmp for this feature.

        * nspawn containers will now see and receive all submounts
          made on the host OS below the root file system of the

        * Forward Secure Sealing is now supported for Journal files,
          which provide cryptographical sealing of journal files so
          that attackers cannot alter log history anymore without this
          being detectable. Lennart will soon post a blog story about
          this explaining it in more detail.

        * There are two new service settings RestartPreventExitStatus=
          and SuccessExitStatus= which allow configuration of exit
          status (exit code or signal) which will be excepted from the
          restart logic, resp. consider successful.

        * journalctl gained the new --verify switch that can be used
          to check the integrity of the structure of journal files and
          (if Forward Secure Sealing is enabled) the contents of
          journal files.

        * nspawn containers will now be run with /dev/stdin, /dev/fd/
          and similar symlinks pre-created. This makes running shells
          as container init process a lot more fun.

        * The fstab support can now handle PARTUUID= and PARTLABEL=

        * A new ConditionHost= condition has been added to match
          against the hostname (with globs) and machine ID. This is
          useful for clusters where a single OS image is used to
          provision a large number of hosts which shall run slightly
          different sets of services.

        * Services which hit the restart limit will now be placed in a
          failure state.

        Contributions from: Bertram Poettering, Dave Reisner, Huang
        Hang, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Martin
        Pitt, Simon Peeters, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek


        * When running in --user mode systemd will now become a
          subreaper (PR_SET_CHILD_SUBREAPER). This should make the ps
          tree a lot more organized.

        * A new PartOf= unit dependency type has been introduced that
          may be used to group services in a natural way.

        * "systemctl enable" may now be used to enable instances of

        * journalctl now prints error log levels in red, and
          warning/notice log levels in bright white. It also supports
          filtering by log level now.

        * cgtop gained a new -n switch (similar to top), to configure
          the maximum number of iterations to run for. It also gained
          -b, to run in batch mode (accepting no input).

        * The suffix ".service" may now be omitted on most systemctl
          command lines involving service unit names.

        * There's a new bus call in logind to lock all sessions, as
          well as a loginctl verb for it "lock-sessions".

        * gained a new call sd_journal_perror()
          that works similar to libc perror() but logs to the journal
          and encodes structured information about the error number.

        * /etc/crypttab entries now understand the new keyfile-size=

        * shutdown(8) now can send a (configurable) wall message when
          a shutdown is cancelled.

        * The mount propagation mode for the root file system will now
          default to "shared", which is useful to make containers work
          nicely out-of-the-box so that they receive new mounts from
          the host. This can be undone locally by running "mount
          --make-rprivate /" if needed.

        * The prefdm.service file has been removed. Distributions
          should maintain this unit downstream if they intend to keep
          it around. However, we recommend writing normal unit files
          for display managers instead.

        * Since systemd is a crucial part of the OS we will now
          default to a number of compiler switches that improve
          security (hardening) such as read-only relocations, stack
          protection, and suchlike.

        * The TimeoutSec= setting for services is now split into
          TimeoutStartSec= and TimeoutStopSec= to allow configuration
          of individual time outs for the start and the stop phase of
          the service.

        Contributions from: Artur Zaprzala, Arvydas Sidorenko, Auke
        Kok, Bryan Kadzban, Dave Reisner, David Strauss, Harald Hoyer,
        Jim Meyering, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Mantas
        Mikulėnas, Martin Pitt, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Peter
        Alfredsen, Shawn Landden, Simon Peeters, Terence Honles, Tom
        Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek


        * The journal and id128 C APIs are now fully documented as man

        * Extra safety checks have been added when transitioning from
          the initial RAM disk to the main system to avoid accidental
          data loss.

        * /etc/crypttab entries now understand the new keyfile-offset=

        * systemctl -t can now be used to filter by unit load state.

        * The journal C API gained the new sd_journal_wait() call to
          make writing synchronous journal clients easier.

        * journalctl gained the new -D switch to show journals from a
          specific directory.

        * journalctl now displays a special marker between log
          messages of two different boots.

        * The journal is now explicitly flushed to /var via a service
          systemd-journal-flush.service, rather than implicitly simply
          by seeing /var/log/journal to be writable.

        * journalctl (and the journal C APIs) can now match for much
          more complex expressions, with alternatives and

        * When transitioning from the initial RAM disk to the main
          system we will now kill all processes in a killing spree to
          ensure no processes stay around by accident.

        * Three new specifiers may be used in unit files: %u, %h, %s
          resolve to the user name, user home directory resp. user
          shell. This is useful for running systemd user instances.

        * We now automatically rotate journal files if their data
          object hash table gets a fill level > 75%. We also size the
          hash table based on the configured maximum file size. This
          together should lower hash collisions drastically and thus
          speed things up a bit.

        * journalctl gained the new "--header" switch to introspect
          header data of journal files.

        * A new setting SystemCallFilters= has been added to services
          which may be used to apply blacklists or whitelists to
          system calls. This is based on SECCOMP Mode 2 of Linux 3.5.

        * nspawn gained a new --link-journal= switch (and quicker: -j)
          to link the container journal with the host. This makes it
          very easy to centralize log viewing on the host for all
          guests while still keeping the journal files separated.

        * Many bugfixes and optimizations

        Contributions from: Auke Kok, Eelco Dolstra, Harald Hoyer, Kay
        Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Malte Starostik, Paul Menzel, Rex
        Tsai, Shawn Landden, Tom Gundersen, Ville Skyttä, Zbigniew


        * Several tools now understand kernel command line arguments,
          which are only read when run in an initial RAM disk. They
          usually follow closely their normal counterparts, but are
          prefixed with rd.

        * There's a new tool to analyze the readahead files that are
          automatically generated at boot. Use:

          /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-readahead analyze /.readahead

        * We now provide an early debug shell on tty9 if this enabled. Use:

          systemctl enable debug-shell.service

        * All plymouth related units have been moved into the Plymouth
          package. Please make sure to upgrade your Plymouth version
          as well.

        * systemd-tmpfiles now supports getting passed the basename of
          a configuration file only, in which case it will look for it
          in all appropriate directories automatically.

        * udevadm info now takes a /dev or /sys path as argument, and
          does the right thing. Example:

          udevadm info /dev/sda
          udevadm info /sys/class/block/sda

        * systemctl now prints a warning if a unit is stopped but a
          unit that might trigger it continues to run. Example: a
          service is stopped but the socket that activates it is left

        * "systemctl status" will now mention if the log output was
          shortened due to rotation since a service has been started.

        * The journal API now exposes functions to determine the
          "cutoff" times due to rotation.

        * journald now understands SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2 for triggering
          immediately flushing of runtime logs to /var if possible,
          resp. for triggering immediate rotation of the journal

        * It is now considered an error if a service is attempted to
          be stopped that is not loaded.

        * XDG_RUNTIME_DIR now uses numeric UIDs instead of usernames.

        * systemd-analyze now supports Python 3

        * tmpfiles now supports cleaning up directories via aging
          where the first level dirs are always kept around but
          directories beneath it automatically aged. This is enabled
          by prefixing the age field with '~'.

        * Seat objects now expose CanGraphical, CanTTY properties
          which is required to deal with very fast bootups where the
          display manager might be running before the graphics drivers
          completed initialization.

        * Seat objects now expose a State property.

        * We now include RPM macros for service enabling/disabling
          based on the preset logic. We recommend RPM based
          distributions to make use of these macros if possible. This
          makes it simpler to reuse RPM spec files across

        * We now make sure that the collected systemd unit name is
          always valid when services log to the journal via

        * There's a new man page kernel-command-line(7) detailing all
          command line options we understand.

        * The fstab generator may now be disabled at boot by passing
          fstab=0 on the kernel command line.

        * A new kernel command line option modules-load= is now understood
          to load a specific kernel module statically, early at boot.

        * Unit names specified on the systemctl command line are now
          automatically escaped as needed. Also, if file system or
          device paths are specified they are automatically turned
          into the appropriate mount or device unit names. Example:

          systemctl status /home
          systemctl status /dev/sda

        * The SysVConsole= configuration option has been removed from
          system.conf parsing.

        * The SysV search path is no longer exported on the D-Bus
          Manager object.

        * The Names= option is been removed from unit file parsing.

        * There's a new man page bootup(7) detailing the boot process.

        * Every unit and every generator we ship with systemd now
          comes with full documentation. The self-explanatory boot is

        * A couple of services gained "systemd-" prefixes in their
          name if they wrap systemd code, rather than only external
          code. Among them fsck@.service which is now

        * The HaveWatchdog property has been removed from the D-Bus
          Manager object.

        * systemd.confirm_spawn= on the kernel command line should now
          work sensibly.

        * There's a new man page crypttab(5) which details all options
          we actually understand.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --capability= switch to pass
          additional capabilities to the container.

        * timedated will now read known NTP implementation unit names
          from /usr/lib/systemd/ntp-units.d/*.list,
 has been removed.

        * journalctl gained a new switch "-b" that lists log data of
          the current boot only.

        * The notify socket is in the abstract namespace again, in
          order to support daemons which chroot() at start-up.

        * There is a new Storage= configuration option for journald
          which allows configuration of where log data should go. This
          also provides a way to disable journal logging entirely, so
          that data collected is only forwarded to the console, the
          kernel log buffer or another syslog implementation.

        * Many bugfixes and optimizations

        Contributions from: Auke Kok, Colin Guthrie, Dave Reisner,
        David Strauss, Eelco Dolstra, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering,
        Lukas Nykryn, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Paul Menzel,
        Shawn Landden, Tom Gundersen


        * "systemctl help <unit>" now shows the man page if one is

        * Several new man pages have been added.

        * MaxLevelStore=, MaxLevelSyslog=, MaxLevelKMsg=,
          MaxLevelConsole= can now be specified in
          journald.conf. These options allow reducing the amount of
          data stored on disk or forwarded by the log level.

        * TimerSlackNSec= can now be specified in system.conf for
          PID1. This allows system-wide power savings.

        Contributions from: Dave Reisner, Kay Sievers, Lauri Kasanen,
        Lennart Poettering, Malte Starostik, Marc-Antoine Perennou,
        Matthias Clasen


        * logind is now capable of (optionally) handling power and
          sleep keys as well as the lid switch.

        * journalctl now understands the syntax "journalctl
          /usr/bin/avahi-daemon" to get all log output of a specific

        * CapabilityBoundingSet= in system.conf now also influences
          the capability bound set of usermode helpers of the kernel.

        Contributions from: Daniel Drake, Daniel J. Walsh, Gert
        Michael Kulyk, Harald Hoyer, Jean Delvare, Kay Sievers,
        Lennart Poettering, Matthew Garrett, Matthias Clasen, Paul
        Menzel, Shawn Landden, Tero Roponen, Tom Gundersen


        * Note that we skipped 139 releases here in order to set the
          new version to something that is greater than both udev's
          and systemd's most recent version number.

        * udev: all udev sources are merged into the systemd source tree now.
          All future udev development will happen in the systemd tree. It
          is still fully supported to use the udev daemon and tools without
          systemd running, like in initramfs or other init systems. Building
          udev though, will require the *build* of the systemd tree, but
          udev can be properly *run* without systemd.

        * udev: /lib/udev/devices/ are not read anymore; systemd-tmpfiles
          should be used to create dead device nodes as workarounds for broken

        * udev: RUN+="socket:..."  and udev_monitor_new_from_socket() is
          no longer supported. udev_monitor_new_from_netlink() needs to be
          used to subscribe to events.

        * udev: when udevd is started by systemd, processes which are left
          behind by forking them off of udev rules, are unconditionally cleaned
          up and killed now after the event handling has finished. Services or
          daemons must be started as systemd services. Services can be
          pulled-in by udev to get started, but they can no longer be directly
          forked by udev rules.

        * udev: the daemon binary is called systemd-udevd now and installed
          in /usr/lib/systemd/. Standalone builds or non-systemd systems need
          to adapt to that, create symlink, or rename the binary after building

        * libudev no longer provides these symbols:
          The versions number was bumped and symbol versioning introduced.

        * systemd-loginctl and systemd-journalctl have been renamed
          to loginctl and journalctl to match systemctl.

        * The config files: /etc/systemd/systemd-logind.conf and
          /etc/systemd/systemd-journald.conf have been renamed to
          logind.conf and journald.conf. Package updates should rename
          the files to the new names on upgrade.

        * For almost all files the license is now LGPL2.1+, changed
          from the previous GPL2.0+. Exceptions are some minor stuff
          of udev (which will be changed to LGPL2.1 eventually, too),
          and the MIT licensed sd-daemon.[ch] library that is suitable
          to be used as drop-in files.

        * systemd and logind now handle system sleep states, in
          particular suspending and hibernating.

        * logind now implements a sleep/shutdown/idle inhibiting logic
          suitable for a variety of uses. Soonishly Lennart will blog
          about this in more detail.

        * var-run.mount and var-lock.mount are no longer provided
          (which prevously bind mounted these directories to their new
          places). Distributions which have not converted these
          directories to symlinks should consider stealing these files
          from git history and add them downstream.

        * We introduced the Documentation= field for units and added
          this to all our shipped units. This is useful to make it
          easier to explore the boot and the purpose of the various

        * All smaller setup units (such as
          systemd-vconsole-setup.service) now detect properly if they
          are run in a container and are skipped when
          appropriate. This guarantees an entirely noise-free boot in
          Linux container environments such as systemd-nspawn.

        * A framework for implementing offline system updates is now
          integrated, for details see:

        * A new service type Type=idle is available now which helps us
          avoiding ugly interleaving of getty output and boot status

        * There's now a system-wide CapabilityBoundingSet= option to
          globally reduce the set of capabilities for the
          system. This is useful to drop CAP_SYS_MKNOD, CAP_SYS_RAWIO,
          even CAP_NET_ADMIN system-wide for secure systems.

        * There are now system-wide DefaultLimitXXX= options to
          globally change the defaults of the various resource limits
          for all units started by PID 1.

        * Harald Hoyer's systemd test suite has been integrated into
          systemd which allows easy testing of systemd builds in qemu
          and nspawn. (This is really awesome! Ask us for details!)

        * The fstab parser is now implemented as generator, not inside
          of PID 1 anymore.

        * systemctl will now warn you if .mount units generated from
          /etc/fstab are out of date due to changes in fstab that
          haven't been read by systemd yet.

        * systemd is now suitable for usage in initrds. Dracut has
          already been updated to make use of this. With this in place
          initrds get a slight bit faster but primarily are much
          easier to introspect and debug since "systemctl status" in
          the host system can be used to introspect initrd services,
          and the journal from the initrd is kept around too.

        * systemd-delta has been added, a tool to explore differences
          between user/admin configuration and vendor defaults.

        * PrivateTmp= now affects both /tmp and /var/tmp.

        * Boot time status messages are now much prettier and feature
          proper english language. Booting up systemd has never been
          so sexy.

        * Read-ahead pack files now include the inode number of all
          files to pre-cache. When the inode changes the pre-caching
          is not attempted. This should be nicer to deal with updated
          packages which might result in changes of read-ahead

        * We now temporaritly lower the kernel's read_ahead_kb variable
          when collecting read-ahead data to ensure the kernel's
          built-in read-ahead does not add noise to our measurements
          of necessary blocks to pre-cache.

        * There's now RequiresMountsFor= to add automatic dependencies
          for all mounts necessary for a specific file system path.

        * MountAuto= and SwapAuto= have been removed from
          system.conf. Mounting file systems at boot has to take place
          in systemd now.

        * nspawn now learned a new switch --uuid= to set the machine
          ID on the command line.

        * nspawn now learned the -b switch to automatically search
          for an init system.

        * vt102 is now the default TERM for serial TTYs, upgraded from

        * systemd-logind now works on VT-less systems.

        * The build tree has been reorganized. The individual
          components now have directories of their own.

        * A new condition type ConditionPathIsReadWrite= is now available.

        * nspawn learned the new -C switch to create cgroups for the
          container in other hierarchies.

        * We now have support for hardware watchdogs, configurable in

        * The scheduled shutdown logic now has a public API.

        * We now mount /tmp as tmpfs by default, but this can be
          masked and /etc/fstab can override it.

        * Since udisks doesn't make use of /media anymore we are not
          mounting a tmpfs on it anymore.

        * journalctl gained a new --local switch to only interleave
          locally generated journal files.

        * We can now load the IMA policy at boot automatically.

        * The GTK tools have been split off into a systemd-ui.

        Contributions from: Andreas Schwab, Auke Kok, Ayan George,
        Colin Guthrie, Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David Ward, Elan
        Ruusamäe, Frederic Crozat, Gergely Nagy, Guillermo Vidal,
        Hannes Reinecke, Harald Hoyer, Javier Jardón, Kay Sievers,
        Lennart Poettering, Lucas De Marchi, Léo Gillot-Lamure,
        Marc-Antoine Perennou, Martin Pitt, Matthew Monaco, Maxim
        A. Mikityanskiy, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich, Michal
        Schmidt, Nis Martensen, Patrick McCarty, Roberto Sassu, Shawn
        Landden, Sjoerd Simons, Sven Anders, Tollef Fog Heen, Tom


        * This is mostly a bugfix release

        * Support optional initialization of the machine ID from the
          KVM or container configured UUID.

        * Support immediate reboots with "systemctl reboot -ff"

        * Show /etc/os-release data in systemd-analyze output

        * Many bugfixes for the journal, including endianness fixes and
          ensuring that disk space enforcement works

        * sd-login.h is C++ comptaible again

        * Extend the /etc/os-release format on request of the Debian

        * We now refuse non-UTF8 strings used in various configuration
          and unit files. This is done to ensure we don't pass invalid
          data over D-Bus or expose it elsewhere.

        * Register Mimo USB Screens as suitable for automatic seat

        * Read SELinux client context from journal clients in a race
          free fashion

        * Reorder configuration file lookup order. /etc now always
          overrides /run in order to allow the administrator to always
          and unconditionally override vendor supplied or
          automatically generated data.

        * The various user visible bits of the journal now have man
          pages. We still lack man pages for the journal API calls

        * We now ship all man pages in HTML format again in the

        Contributions from: Dave Reisner, Dirk Eibach, Frederic
        Crozat, Harald Hoyer, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Marti
        Raudsepp, Michal Schmidt, Shawn Landden, Tero Roponen, Thierry


        * This is mostly a bugfix release

        * systems lacking /etc/os-release  are no longer supported.

        * Various functionality updates to

        * Track class of PAM logins to distuingish greeters from
          normal user logins.

        Contributions from: Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Michael


        * This is an important bugfix release for v41.

        * Building man pages is now optional which should be useful
          for those building systemd from git but unwilling to install

        * Watchdog support for supervising services is now usable. In
          a future release support for hardware watchdogs
          (i.e. /dev/watchdog) will be added building on this.

        * Service start rate limiting is now configurable and can be
          turned off per service. When a start rate limit is hit a
          reboot can automatically be triggered.

        * New CanReboot(), CanPowerOff() bus calls in systemd-logind.

        Contributions from: Benjamin Franzke, Bill Nottingham,
        Frederic Crozat, Lennart Poettering, Michael Olbrich, Michal
        Schmidt, Michał Górny, Piotr Drąg


        * The systemd binary is installed /usr/lib/systemd/systemd now;
          An existing /sbin/init symlink needs to be adapted with the
          package update.

        * The code that loads kernel modules has been ported to invoke
          libkmod directly, instead of modprobe. This means we do not
          support systems with module-init-tools anymore.

        * Watchdog support is now already useful, but still not

        * A new kernel command line option systemd.setenv= is
          understood to set system wide environment variables
          dynamically at boot.

Michael Biebl's avatar
Michael Biebl committed
        * We now limit the set of capabilities of systemd-journald.
2229 2230 2231 2232 2233 2234 2235 2236 2237 2238 2239 2240 2241 2242 2243 2244 2245 2246 2247 2248 2249 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255 2256 2257 2258 2259 2260 2261 2262 2263 2264 2265 2266 2267 2268 2269 2270 2271 2272 2273 2274 2275 2276 2277 2278 2279 2280 2281 2282 2283 2284 2285 2286 2287 2288 2289 2290 2291 2292 2293 2294 2295 2296 2297 2298 2299 2300 2301 2302 2303 2304 2305 2306 2307 2308 2309 2310 2311 2312 2313 2314 2315 2316 2317 2318 2319 2320 2321 2322 2323 2324 2325 2326 2327 2328 2329 2330 2331 2332 2333 2334 2335 2336 2337 2338 2339 2340 2341 2342 2343 2344 2345 2346 2347 2348 2349 2350 2351 2352 2353 2354 2355 2356 2357 2358 2359 2360 2361 2362 2363 2364 2365 2366 2367 2368 2369 2370 2371 2372 2373 2374 2375 2376 2377 2378 2379 2380 2381 2382 2383 2384 2385 2386 2387 2388 2389 2390 2391 2392 2393 2394 2395 2396 2397 2398 2399 2400 2401 2402 2403

        * We now set SIGPIPE to ignore by default, since it only is
          useful in shell pipelines, and has little use in general
          code. This can be disabled with IgnoreSIPIPE=no in unit

        Contributions from: Benjamin Franzke, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Michael Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Tom Gundersen,
        William Douglas


        * This is mostly a bugfix release

        * We now expose the reason why a service failed in the
          "Result" D-Bus property.

        * Rudimentary service watchdog support (will be completed over
          the next few releases.)

        * When systemd forks off in order execute some service we will
          now immediately changes its argv[0] to reflect which process
          it will execute. This is useful to minimize the time window
          with a generic argv[0], which makes bootcharts more useful

        Contributions from: Alvaro Soliverez, Chris Paulson-Ellis, Kay
        Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Michael Olbrich, Michal Schmidt,
        Mike Kazantsev, Ray Strode


        * This is mostly a test release, but incorporates many

        * New systemd-cgtop tool to show control groups by their
          resource usage.

        * Linking against libacl for ACLs is optional again. If
          disabled, support tracking device access for active logins
          goes becomes unavailable, and so does access to the user
          journals by the respective users.

        * If a group "adm" exists, journal files are automatically
          owned by them, thus allow members of this group full access
          to the system journal as well as all user journals.

        * The journal now stores the SELinux context of the logging
          client for all entries.

        * Add C++ inclusion guards to all public headers

        * New output mode "cat" in the journal to print only text
          messages, without any meta data like date or time.

        * Include tiny X server wrapper as a temporary stop-gap to
          teach XOrg udev display enumeration. This is used by display
          managers such as gdm, and will go away as soon as XOrg
          learned native udev hotplugging for display devices.

        * Add new systemd-cat tool for executing arbitrary programs
          with STDERR/STDOUT connected to the journal. Can also act as
          BSD logger replacement, and does so by default.

        * Optionally store all locally generated coredumps in the
          journal along with meta data.

        * systemd-tmpfiles learnt four new commands: n, L, c, b, for
          writing short strings to files (for usage for /sys), and for
          creating symlinks, character and block device nodes.

        * New unit file option ControlGroupPersistent= to make cgroups
          persistent, following the mechanisms outlined in

        * Support multiple local RTCs in a sane way

        * No longer monopolize IO when replaying readahead data on
          rotating disks, since we might starve non-file-system IO to
          death, since fanotify() will not see accesses done by blkid,
          or fsck.

        * Don't show kernel threads in systemd-cgls anymore, unless
          requested with new -k switch.

        Contributions from: Dan Horák, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Michal Schmidt


        * This is mostly a test release, but incorporates many

        * The git repository moved to:

        * First release with the journal

        * The journal replaces both systemd-kmsg-syslogd and

        * New sd_pid_get_unit() API call in libsystemd-logind

        * Many systemadm clean-ups

        * Introduce which is ordered before all
          remote mounts and may be used to start services before all
          remote mounts.

        * Added Mageia support

        * Add bash completion for systemd-loginctl

        * Actively monitor PID file creation for daemons which exit in
          the parent process before having finished writing the PID
          file in the daemon process. Daemons which do this need to be
          fixed (i.e. PID file creation must have finished before the
          parent exits), but we now react a bit more gracefully to them.

        * Add colourful boot output, mimicking the well-known output
          of existing distributions.

        * New option PassCredentials= for socket units, for
          compatibility with a recent kernel ABI breakage.

        * /etc/rc.local is now hooked in via a generator binary, and
          thus will no longer act as synchronization point during

        * systemctl list-unit-files now supports --root=.

        * systemd-tmpfiles now understands two new commands: z, Z for
          relabelling files according to the SELinux database. This is
          useful to apply SELinux labels to specific files in /sys,
          among other things.

        * Output of SysV services is now forwarded to both the console
          and the journal by default, not only just the console.

        * New man pages for all APIs from libsystemd-login.

        * The build tree got reorganized and a the build system is a
          lot more modular allowing embedded setups to specifically
          select the components of systemd they are interested in.

        * Support for Linux systems lacking the kernel VT subsystem is

        * configure's --with-rootdir= got renamed to
          --with-rootprefix= to follow the naming used by udev and

        * Unless specified otherwise we'll now install to /usr instead
          of /usr/local by default.

        * Processes with '@' in argv[0][0] are now excluded from the
          final shut-down killing spree, following the logic explained

        * All processes remaining in a service cgroup when we enter
          the START or START_PRE states are now killed with
          SIGKILL. That means it is no longer possible to spawn
          background processes from ExecStart= lines (which was never
          supported anyway, and bad style).

        * New PropagateReloadTo=/PropagateReloadFrom= options to bind
          reloading of units together.

        Contributions from: Bill Nottingham, Daniel J. Walsh, Dave
        Reisner, Dexter Morgan, Gregs Gregs, Jonathan Nieder, Kay
        Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Michael Biebl, Michal Schmidt,
        Michał Górny, Ran Benita, Thomas Jarosch, Tim Waugh, Tollef
        Fog Heen, Tom Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek