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<?xml version='1.0'?> <!--*-nxml-*-->
<!DOCTYPE refentry PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN"
        "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd">

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  Copyright 2010 Lennart Poettering

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<refentry id="systemd.time">

        <refentryinfo>
                <title>systemd.time</title>
                <productname>systemd</productname>

                <authorgroup>
                        <author>
                                <contrib>Developer</contrib>
                                <firstname>Lennart</firstname>
                                <surname>Poettering</surname>
                                <email>lennart@poettering.net</email>
                        </author>
                </authorgroup>
        </refentryinfo>

        <refmeta>
                <refentrytitle>systemd.time</refentrytitle>
                <manvolnum>7</manvolnum>
        </refmeta>

        <refnamediv>
                <refname>systemd.time</refname>
                <refpurpose>Time and date specifications</refpurpose>
        </refnamediv>

        <refsect1>
                <title>Description</title>

                <para>In systemd timestamps, timespans, and calendar
                events are displayed and may be specified in closely
                related syntaxes.</para>
        </refsect1>

        <refsect1>
                <title>Displaying Timespans</title>

                <para>Timespans refer to time durations. On display
                systemd will present timespans as a space separated
                series of time values each suffixed by a time
                unit.</para>

                <programlisting>2h 30min</programlisting>

                <para>All specified time values are meant to be added
                up. The above hence refers to 150 minutes.</para>
        </refsect1>

        <refsect1>
                <title>Parsing Timespans</title>

                <para>When parsing systemd will accept the same
                timespan syntax. Separating spaces may be omitted. The
                following time units are understood:</para>

                <itemizedlist>
                        <listitem><para>usec, us</para></listitem>
                        <listitem><para>msec, ms</para></listitem>
                        <listitem><para>seconds, second, sec, s</para></listitem>
                        <listitem><para>minutes, minute, min, m</para></listitem>
                        <listitem><para>hours, hour, hr, h</para></listitem>
                        <listitem><para>days, day, d</para></listitem>
                        <listitem><para>weeks, week, w</para></listitem>
                        <listitem><para>months, month</para></listitem>
                        <listitem><para>years, year, y</para></listitem>
                </itemizedlist>

                <para>If no time unit is specified, generally seconds
                are assumed, but some exceptions exist and are marked
                as such. In a few cases <literal>ns</literal>,
                <literal>nsec</literal> is accepted too, where the
                granularity of the timespan allows for this.</para>

                <para>Examples for valid timespan specifications:</para>

                <programlisting>2 h
2hours
48hr
1y 12month
55s500ms
300ms20s 5day</programlisting>
        </refsect1>

        <refsect1>
                <title>Displaying Timestamps</title>

                <para>Timestamps refer to specific, unique points in
                time. On display systemd will format these in the
                local timezone as follows:</para>

                <programlisting>Fri 2012-11-23 23:02:15 CET</programlisting>

                <para>The week day is printed according to the locale
                choice of the user.</para>
        </refsect1>

        <refsect1>
                <title>Parsing Timestamps</title>

                <para>When parsing systemd will accept a similar
                timestamp syntax, but excluding any timezone
                specification (this limitation might be removed
                eventually). The week day specification is optional,
                but when the week day is specified it must either be
                in the abbreviated (<literal>Wed</literal>) or
                non-abbreviated (<literal>Wednesday</literal>) english
                language form (case doesn't matter), and is not
                subject to the locale choice of the user. Either the
                date, or the time part may be omitted, in which case
                the current date or 00:00:00, resp., is assumed. The
                seconds component of the time may also be omitted, in
                which case ":00" is assumed. Year numbers may be
                specified in full or may be abbreviated (omitting the
                century).</para>

                <para>A timestamp is considered invalid if a week day
                is specified and the date does not actually match the
                specified day of the week.</para>

                <para>When parsing systemd will also accept a few
                special placeholders instead of timestamps:
                <literal>now</literal> may be used to refer to the
                current time (or of the invocation of the command
                that is currently executed). <literal>today</literal>,
                <literal>yesterday</literal>,
                <literal>tomorrow</literal> refer to 00:00:00 of the
                current day, the day before or the next day,
                respectively.</para>

                <para>When parsing systemd will also accept relative
                time specifications. A timespan (see above) that is
                prefixed with <literal>+</literal> is evaluated to the
                current time plus the specified
                timespan. Correspondingly a timespan that is prefix
                with <literal>-</literal> is evaluated to the current
                time minus the specified timespan. Instead of
                prefixing the timespan with <literal>-</literal> it
                may also be suffixed with a space and the word
                <literal>ago</literal>.</para>

                <para>Examples for valid timestamps and their
                normalized form (assuming the current time was
                2012-11-23 18:15:22):</para>

                <programlisting>Fri 2012-11-23 11:12:13 → Fri 2012-11-23 11:12:13
    2012-11-23 11:12:13 → Fri 2012-11-23 11:12:13
             2012-11-23 → Fri 2012-11-23 00:00:00
               12-11-23 → Fri 2012-11-23 00:00:00
               11:12:13 → Fri 2012-11-23 11:12:13
                  11:12 → Fri 2012-11-23 11:12:00
                    now → Fri 2012-11-23 18:15:22
                  today → Fri 2012-11-23 00:00:00
              yesterday → Fri 2012-11-22 00:00:00
               tomorrow → Fri 2012-11-24 00:00:00
               +3h30min → Fri 2012-11-23 21:45:22
                    -5s → Fri 2012-11-23 18:15:17
              11min ago → Fri 2012-11-23 18:04:22</programlisting>

                <para>Note that timestamps printed by systemd will not
                be parsed correctly by systemd, as the timezone
                specification is not accepted, and printing timestamps
                is subject to locale settings for the week day while
                parsing only accepts english week day names.</para>

                <para>In some cases systemd will display a relative
                timestamp (relative to the current time, or the time
                of invocation of the command) instead or in addition
                to an absolute timestamp as described above. A
                relative timestamp is formatted as follows:</para>

                <para>2 months 5 days ago</para>

                <para>Note that any relative timestamp will also parse
                correctly where a timestamp is expected. (see above)</para>
        </refsect1>

        <refsect1>
                <title>Calendar Events</title>

                <para>Calendar events may be used to refer to one or
                more points in time in a single expression. They form
                a superset of the absolute timestamps explained above:</para>

                <programlisting>Thu,Fri 2012-*-1,5 11:12:13</programlisting>

                <para>The above refers to 11:12:13 of the first or
                fifth day of any month of the year 2012, given that it
                is a thursday or friday.</para>

                <para>The weekday specification is optional. If
                specified it should consist of one or more english
                language week day names, either in the abbreviated
                (Wed) or non-abbreviated (Wednesday) form (case does
                not matter), separated by colons. Specifying two week
                days separated by "-" refers to a range of continuous
                week days. "," and "-" may be combined freely.</para>

                <para>In the date and time specifications any
                component may be specified as "*" in which case any
                value will match. Alternatively, each component can be
                specified as list of values separated by
                colons. Values may also be suffixed with "/" and a
                repetition value, which indicates that the value and
                all values plus multiples of the repetition value are
                matched.</para>

                <para>Either time or date specification may be
                omitted, in which case the current day and 00:00:00 is
                implied, respectively. If the second component is not
                specified ":00" is assumed.</para>

                <para>Timezone names may not be specified.</para>

                <para>The special expressions
                <literal>hourly</literal>, <literal>daily</literal>,
                <literal>monthly</literal> and <literal>weekly</literal>
                may be used as calendar events which refer to
                <literal>*-*-* *:00:00</literal>, <literal>*-*-*
                00:00:00</literal>, <literal>*-*-01 00:00:00</literal> and
                <literal>Mon *-*-* 00:00:00</literal>,
                respectively.</para>

                <para>Examples for valid timestamps and their
                normalized form:</para>

<programlisting>   Sat,Thu,Mon-Wed,Sat-Sun → Mon-Thu,Sat,Sun *-*-* 00:00:00
     Mon,Sun 12-*-* 2,1:23 → Mon,Sun 2012-*-* 01,02:23:00
                   Wed *-1 → Wed *-*-01 00:00:00
           Wed-Wed,Wed *-1 → Wed *-*-01 00:00:00
                Wed, 17:48 → Wed *-*-* 17:48:00
Wed-Sat,Tue 12-10-15 1:2:3 → Tue-Sat 2012-10-15 01:02:03
               *-*-7 0:0:0 → *-*-07 00:00:00
                     10-15 → *-10-15 00:00:00
       monday *-12-* 17:00 → Mon *-12-* 17:00:00
 Mon,Fri *-*-3,1,2 *:30:45 → Mon,Fri *-*-01,02,03 *:30:45
      12,14,13,12:20,10,30 → *-*-* 12,13,14:10,20,30:00
 mon,fri *-1/2-1,3 *:30:45 → Mon,Fri *-01/2-01,03 *:30:45
            03-05 08:05:40 → *-03-05 08:05:40
                  08:05:40 → *-*-* 08:05:40
                     05:40 → *-*-* 05:40:00
    Sat,Sun 12-05 08:05:40 → Sat,Sun *-12-05 08:05:40
          Sat,Sun 08:05:40 → Sat,Sun *-*-* 08:05:40
          2003-03-05 05:40 → 2003-03-05 05:40:00
                2003-03-05 → 2003-03-05 00:00:00
                     03-05 → *-03-05 00:00:00
                    hourly → *-*-* *:00:00
                     daily → *-*-* 00:00:00
                   monthly → *-*-01 00:00:00
                    weekly → Mon *-*-* 00:00:00
                     *:2/3 → *-*-* *:02/3:00</programlisting>

                  <para>Calendar events are used by timer units, see
276
                  <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.timer</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
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                  for details.</para>

        </refsect1>

        <refsect1>
                  <title>See Also</title>
                  <para>
                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>journalctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.timer</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
287 288
                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.directives</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>
289 290 291 292
                  </para>
        </refsect1>

</refentry>