machine-id.xml 6.5 KB
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<?xml version='1.0'?> <!--*-nxml-*-->
<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="http://docbook.sourceforge.net/release/xsl/current/xhtml/docbook.xsl"?>
<!DOCTYPE refentry PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN"
        "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd">

<!--
  This file is part of systemd.

  Copyright 2010 Lennart Poettering

  systemd is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
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  under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or
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  (at your option) any later version.

  systemd is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
  WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
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  Lesser General Public License for more details.
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  You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
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  along with systemd; If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
-->

<refentry id="machine-id">
        <refentryinfo>
                <title>/etc/machine-id</title>
                <productname>systemd</productname>

                <authorgroup>
                        <author>
                                <contrib>Developer</contrib>
                                <firstname>Lennart</firstname>
                                <surname>Poettering</surname>
                                <email>lennart@poettering.net</email>
                        </author>
                </authorgroup>
        </refentryinfo>

        <refmeta>
                <refentrytitle>machine-id</refentrytitle>
                <manvolnum>5</manvolnum>
        </refmeta>

        <refnamediv>
                <refname>machine-id</refname>
                <refpurpose>local machine ID configuration file</refpurpose>
        </refnamediv>

        <refsynopsisdiv>
                <para><filename>/etc/machine-id</filename></para>
        </refsynopsisdiv>

        <refsect1>
                <title>Description</title>

                <para>The <filename>/etc/machine-id</filename> file
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                contains the unique machine id of the local system
                that is set during installation. The machine ID is a
                single newline-terminated, hexadecimal, lowercase 32
                character machine ID string. (When decoded from
                hexadecimal this corresponds with a 16 byte/128 bit
                string.)</para>
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                <para>The machine ID is usually generated from a
                random source during system installation and stays
                constant for all subsequent boots. Optionally, for
                stateless systems it is generated during runtime at
Lennart Poettering's avatar
Lennart Poettering committed
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                boot if it is found to be empty.</para>
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                <para>The machine ID does not change based on user
                configuration, or when hardware is replaced.</para>

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                <para>This machine ID adheres to the same format and
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                logic as the D-Bus machine ID.</para>

                <para>Programs may use this ID to identify the host
                with a globally unique ID in the network, that does
                not change even if the local network configuration
                changes. Due to this and its greater length it is
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                a more useful replacement for the
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                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gethostid</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
                call POSIX specifies.</para>
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                <para>The
                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-machine-id-setup</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>
                tool may be used by installer tools to initialize the
                machine ID at install time.</para>
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        </refsect1>

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        <refsect1>
                <title>Relation to OSF UUIDs</title>

                <para>Note that the machine ID historically is not an
                OSF UUID as defined by <ulink
                url="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4122">RFC
                4122</ulink>, nor a Microsoft GUID. Starting with
                systemd v30 newly generated machine IDs however do
                qualify as v4 UUIDs.</para>

                <para>In order to maintain compatibility with existing
                installations, an application requiring a UUID should
                decode the machine ID, and then apply the following
                operations to turn it into a valid OSF v4 UUID. With
                <literal>id</literal> being an unsigned character
                array:</para>

                <programlisting>/* Set UUID version to 4 --- truly random generation */
id[6] = (id[6] &amp; 0x0F) | 0x40;
/* Set the UUID variant to DCE */
id[8] = (id[8] &amp; 0x3F) | 0x80;</programlisting>

                <para>(This code is inspired by
                <literal>generate_random_uuid()</literal> of
                <filename>drivers/char/random.c</filename> from the
                kernel sources.)</para>

        </refsect1>

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        <refsect1>
                <title>History</title>

                <para>The simple configuration file format of
                <filename>/etc/machine-id</filename> originates in the
                <filename>/var/lib/dbus/machine-id</filename> file
                introduced by D-Bus. In fact this latter file might be a
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                symlink to
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                <varname>/etc/machine-id</varname>.</para>
        </refsect1>

        <refsect1>
                  <title>See Also</title>
                  <para>
                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
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                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-machine-id-setup</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
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                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gethostid</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
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                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>hostname</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>machine-info</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
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                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>os-release</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
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                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd-id128</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
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                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_id128_get_machine</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
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                  </para>
        </refsect1>

</refentry>