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systemd System and Service Manager

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        * A new tool systemd-sysusers has been added. This tool
          creates system users and groups in /etc/passwd and
          /etc/group, based on static declarative system user/group
          definitions in /usr/lib/sysusers.d/. This is useful to
          enable factory resets and volatile systems that boot up with
          an empty /etc directory, and thus need system users and
          groups created during early boot. systemd now also ships
          with two default sysusers.d/ files for the most basic
          users and groups systemd and the core operating system

        * A new tmpfiles snippet has been added that rebuilds the
          essential files in /etc on boot, should they be missing.

        * A directive for ensuring automatic clean-up of
          /var/cache/man/ has been removed from the default
          configuration. This line should now be shipped by the man
          implementation. The necessary change has been made to the
          man-db implementation. Note that you need to update your man
          implementation to one that ships this line, otherwise no
          automatic clean-up of /var/cache/man will take place.

        * A new condition ConditionNeedsUpdate= has been added that
          may conditionalize services to only run when /etc or /var
          are "older" than the vendor operating system resources in
          /usr. This is useful for reconstructing or updating /etc
          after an offline update of /usr or a factory reset, on the
          next reboot. Services that want to run once after such an
          update or reset should use this condition and order
          themselves before the new systemd-update-done.service, which
          will mark the two directories as fully updated. A number of
          service files have been added making use of this, to rebuild
          the udev hardware database, the journald message catalog and
          dynamic loader cache (ldconfig). The systemd-sysusers tool
          described above also makes use of this now. With this in
          place it is now possible to start up a minimal operating
          system with /etc empty cleanly. For more information on the
          concepts involved see this recent blog story:

        * A new system group "input" has been introduced, and all
          input device nodes get this group assigned. This is useful
          for system-level software to get access to input devices. It
          complements what is already done for "audio" and "video".

        * systemd-networkd learnt minimal DHCPv4 server support in
          addition to the existing DHCPv4 client support. It also
          learnt DHCPv6 client and IPv6 Router Solicitation client
          support. The DHCPv4 client gained support for static routes
          passed in from the server. Note that the [DHCPv4] section
          known in older systemd-networkd versions has been renamed to
          [DHCP] and is now also used by the DHCPv6 client. Existing
          .network files using settings of this section should be
          updated, though compatibility is maintained. Optionally, the
          client hostname may now be sent to the DHCP server.

        * networkd gained support for vxlan virtual networks as well
          as tun/tap and dummy devices.

        * networkd gained support for automatic allocation of address
          ranges for interfaces from a system-wide pool of
          addresses. This is useful for dynamically managing a large
          number of interfaces with a single network configuration
          file. In particular this is useful to easily assign
          appropriate IP addresses to the veth links of a large number
          of nspawn instances.

        * RPM macros for processing sysusers, sysctl and binfmt
          drop-in snippets at package installation time have been

        * The /etc/os-release file should now be placed in
          /usr/lib/os-release. The old location is automatically
          created as symlink. /usr/lib is the more appropriate
          location of this file, since it shall actually describe the
          vendor operating system shipped in /usr, and not the
          configuration stored in /etc.

        * .mount units gained a new boolean SloppyOptions= setting
          that maps to mount(8)'s -s option which enables permissive
          parsing of unknown mount options.

        * tmpfiles learnt a new "L+" directive which creates a symlink
          but (unlike "L") deletes a pre-existing file first, should
          it already exist and not already be the correct
          symlink. Similar, "b+", "c+" and "p+" directives have been
          added as well, which create block and character devices, as
          well as fifos in the filesystem, possibly removing any
          pre-existing files of different types.

        * For tmpfiles' "L", "L+", "C" and "C+" directives the final
          'argument' field (which so far specified the source to
          symlink/copy the files from) is now optional. If omitted the
          same file os copied from /usr/share/factory/ suffixed by the
          full destination path. This is useful for populating /etc
          with essential files, by copying them from vendor defaults
          shipped in /usr/share/factory/etc.

        * A new command "systemctl preset-all" has been added that
          applies the service preset settings to all installed unit
          files. A new switch --preset-mode= has been added that
          controls whether only enable or only disable operations
          shall be executed.

        * A new command "systemctl is-system-running" has been added
          that allows checking the overall state of the system, for
          example whether it is fully up and running.

        * When the system boots up with an empty /etc, the equivalent
          to "systemctl preset-all" is executed during early boot, to
          make sure all default services are enabled after a factory

        * systemd now contains a minimal preset file that enables the
          most basic services systemd ships by default.

        * Unit files' [Install] section gained a new DefaultInstance=
          field for defining the default instance to create if a
          template unit is enabled with no instance specified.

        * A new passive target has been added
          that may be used by services that need to make they run and
          finish before the first LUKS cryptographic device is set up.

        * The /dev/loop-control and /dev/btrfs-control device nodes
          are now owned by the "disk" group by default, opening up
          access to this group.

        * systemd-coredump will now automatically generate a
          stack trace of all core dumps taking place on the system,
          based on elfutils' libdw library. This stack trace is logged
          to the journal.

        * systemd-coredump may now optionally store coredumps directly
          on disk (in /var/lib/systemd/coredump, possibly compressed),
          instead of storing them unconditionally in the journal. This
          mode is the new default. A new configuration file
          /etc/systemd/coredump.conf has been added to configure this
          and other parameters of systemd-coredump.

        * coredumpctl gained a new "info" verb to show details about a
          specific coredump. A new switch "-1" has also been added
          that makes sure to only show information about the most
          recent entry instead of all entries. Also, as the tool is
          generally useful now the "systemd-" prefix of the binary
          name has been removed. Distributions that want to maintain
          compatibility with the old name should add a symlink from
          the old name to the new name.

        * journald's SplitMode= now defaults to "uid". This makes sure
          that unprivileged users can access their own coredumps with
          coredumpctl without restrictions.

        * New kernel command line options "systemd.wants=" (for
          pulling an additional unit during boot), "systemd.mask="
          (for masking a specific unit for the boot), and
          "systemd.debug-shell" (for enabling the debug shell on tty9)
          have been added. This is implemented in the new generator

        * systemd-nspawn will now by default filter a couple of
          syscalls for containers, among them those required for
          kernel module loading, direct x86 IO port access, swap
          management, and kexec. Most importantly though
          open_by_handle_at() is now prohibited for containers,
          closing a hole similar to a recently discussed vulnerability
          in docker regarding access to files on file hierarchies the
          container should normally not have access to. Note that for
          nspawn we generally make no security claims anyway (and
          this is explicitly documented in the man page), so this is
          just a fix for one of the most obvious problems.

        * A new man page file-hierarchy(7) has been added that
          contains a minimized, modernized version of the file system
          layout systemd expects, similar in style to the FHS
          specification or hier(5). A new tool systemd-path(1) has
          been added to query many of these paths for the local
          machine and user.

        * Automatic time-based clean-up of $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR is no
          longer done. Since the directory now has a per-user size
          limit, and is cleaned on logout this appears unnecessary,
          in particular since this now brings the lifecycle of this
          directory closer in line with how IPC objects are handled.

        * systemd.pc now exports a number of additional directories,
          including $libdir (which is useful to identify the library
          path for the primary architecture of the system), and a
          couple of drop-in directories.

        * udev's predictable network interface names now use the dev_port
          sysfs attribute, introduced in linux 3.15 instead of dev_id to
          distinguish between ports of the same PCI function. dev_id should
          only be used for ports using the same HW address, hence the need
          for dev_port.

        * machined has been updated to export the OS version of a
          container (read from /etc/os-release and
          /usr/lib/os-release) on the bus. This is now shown in
          "machinectl status" for a machine.

        * A new service setting RestartForceExitStatus= has been
          added. If configured to a set of exit signals or process
          return values, the service will be restarted when the main
          daemon process exits with any of them, regardless of the
          Restart= setting.

        * systemctl's -H switch for connecting to remote systemd
          machines has been extended so that it may be used to
          directly connect to a specific container on the
          host. "systemctl -H root@foobar:waldi" will now connect as
          user "root" to host "foobar", and then proceed directly to
          the container named "waldi". Note that currently you have to
          authenticate as user "root" for this to work, as entering
          containers is a privileged operation.

        Contributions from: Andreas Henriksson, Benjamin Steinwender,
        Carl Schaefer, Christian Hesse, Colin Ian King, Cristian
        Rodríguez, Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Eugene
        Yakubovich, Filipe Brandenburger, Frederic Crozat, Hristo
        Venev, Jan Engelhardt, Jonathan Boulle, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Luke Shumaker, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine
        Perennou, Marcel Holtmann, Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich,
        Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Michal Sekletar, Patrik Flykt, Ronan Le
        Martret, Ronny Chevalier, Ruediger Oertel, Steven Noonan,
        Susant Sahani, Thadeu Lima de Souza Cascardo, Thomas Hindoe
        Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Tom Hirst, Umut Tezduyar
        Lindskog, Uoti Urpala, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        -- Berlin, 2014-07-03

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        * As an experimental feature, udev now tries to lock the
          disk device node (flock(LOCK_SH|LOCK_NB)) while it
          executes events for the disk or any of its partitions.
          Applications like partitioning programs can lock the
          disk device node (flock(LOCK_EX)) and claim temporary
          device ownership that way; udev will entirely skip all event
          handling for this disk and its partitions. If the disk
          was opened for writing, the close will trigger a partition
          table rescan in udev's "watch" facility, and if needed
          synthesize "change" events for the disk and all its partitions.
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          This is now unconditionally enabled, and if it turns out to
          cause major problems, we might turn it on only for specific
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          devices, or might need to disable it entirely. Device Mapper
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          devices are excluded from this logic.

        * We temporarily dropped the "-l" switch for fsck invocations,
          since they collide with the flock() logic above. util-linux
          upstream has been changed already to avoid this conflict,
          and we will readd "-l" as soon as util-linux with this
          change has been released.

        * The dependency on libattr has been removed. Since a long
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          time, the extended attribute calls have moved to glibc, and
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          libattr is thus unnecessary.

        * Virtualization detection works without priviliges now. This
          means the systemd-detect-virt binary no longer requires
          CAP_SYS_PTRACE file capabilities, and our daemons can run
          with fewer privileges.

        * systemd-networkd now runs under its own "systemd-network"
          user. It retains the CAP_NET_ADMIN, CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE,
          CAP_NET_BROADCAST, CAP_NET_RAW capabilities though, but
          loses the ability to write to files owned by root this way.

        * Similar, systemd-resolved now runs under its own
          "systemd-resolve" user with no capabilities remaining.

        * Similar, systemd-bus-proxyd now runs under its own
          "systemd-bus-proxy" user with only CAP_IPC_OWNER remaining.

        * systemd-networkd gained support for setting up "veth"
          virtual ethernet devices for container connectivity, as well
          as GRE and VTI tunnels.

        * systemd-networkd will no longer automatically attempt to
          manually load kernel modules necessary for certain tunnel
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          transports. Instead, it is assumed the kernel loads them
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          automatically when required. This only works correctly on
          very new kernels. On older kernels, please consider adding
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          the kernel modules to /etc/modules-load.d/ as a work-around.
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        * The resolv.conf file systemd-resolved generates has been
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          moved to /run/systemd/resolve/. If you have a symlink from
          /etc/resolv.conf, it might be necessary to correct it.

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        * Two new service settings, ProtectedHome= and ProtectedSystem=,
          have been added. When enabled, they will make the user data
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          (such as /home) inaccessible or read-only and the system
          (such as /usr) read-only, for specific services. This allows
          very light-weight per-service sandboxing to avoid
          modifications of user data or system files from
          services. These two new switches have been enabled for all
          of systemd's long-running services, where appropriate.

        * Socket units gained new SocketUser= and SocketGroup=
          settings to set the owner user and group of AF_UNIX sockets
          and FIFOs in the file system.

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        * Socket units gained a new RemoveOnStop= setting. If enabled,
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          all FIFOS and sockets in the file system will be removed
          when the specific socket unit is stopped.

        * Socket units gained a new Symlinks= setting. It takes a list
          of symlinks to create to file system sockets or FIFOs
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          created by the specific Unix sockets. This is useful to
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          manage symlinks to socket nodes with the same life-cycle as
          the socket itself.

        * The /dev/log socket and /dev/initctl FIFO have been moved to
          /run, and have been replaced by symlinks. This allows
          connecting to these facilities even if PrivateDevices=yes is
          used for a service (which makes /dev/log itself unavailable,
          but /run is left). This also has the benefit of ensuring
          that /dev only contains device nodes, directories and
          symlinks, and nothing else.

        * sd-daemon gained two new calls sd_pid_notify() and
          sd_pid_notifyf(). They are similar to sd_notify() and
          sd_notifyf(), but allow overriding of the source PID of
          notification messages if permissions permit this. This is
          useful to send notify messages on behalf of a different
          process (for example, the parent process). The
          systemd-notify tool has been updated to make use of this
          when sending messages (so that notification messages now
          originate from the shell script invoking systemd-notify and
          not the systemd-notify process itself. This should minimize
          a race where systemd fails to associate notification
          messages to services when the originating process already

        * A new "on-abnormal" setting for Restart= has been added. If
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          set, it will result in automatic restarts on all "abnormal"
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          reasons for a process to exit, which includes unclean
          signals, core dumps, timeouts and watchdog timeouts, but
          does not include clean and unclean exit codes or clean
          signals. Restart=on-abnormal is an alternative for
          Restart=on-failure for services that shall be able to
          terminate and avoid restarts on certain errors, by
          indicating so with an unclean exit code. Restart=on-failure
          or Restart=on-abnormal is now the recommended setting for
          all long-running services.

        * If the InaccessibleDirectories= service setting points to a
          mount point (or if there are any submounts contained within
          it), it is now attempted to completely unmount it, to make
          the file systems truly unavailable for the respective

        * The ReadOnlyDirectories= service setting and
          systemd-nspawn's --read-only parameter are now recursively
          applied to all submounts, too.

        * Mount units may now be created transiently via the bus APIs.

        * The support for SysV and LSB init scripts has been removed
          from the systemd daemon itself. Instead, it is now
          implemented as a generator that creates native systemd units
          from these scripts when needed. This enables us to remove a
          substantial amount of legacy code from PID 1, following the
          fact that many distributions only ship a very small number
          of LSB/SysV init scripts nowadays.

        * Priviliged Xen (dom0) domains are not considered
          virtualization anymore by the virtualization detection
          logic. After all, they generally have unrestricted access to
          the hardware and usually are used to manage the unprivileged
          (domU) domains.

        * systemd-tmpfiles gained a new "C" line type, for copying
          files or entire directories.

        * systemd-tmpfiles "m" lines are now fully equivalent to "z"
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          lines. So far, they have been non-globbing versions of the
          latter, and have thus been redundant. In future, it is
          recommended to only use "z". "m" has hence been removed
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          from the documentation, even though it stays supported.

        * A tmpfiles snippet to recreate the most basic structure in
          /var has been added. This is enough to create the /var/run 
          /run symlink and create a couple of structural
          directories. This allows systems to boot up with an empty or
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          volatile /var. Of course, while with this change, the core OS
          now is capable with dealing with a volatile /var, not all
          user services are ready for it. However, we hope that sooner
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          or later, many service daemons will be changed upstream so
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          that they are able to automatically create their necessary
          directories in /var at boot, should they be missing. This is
          the first step to allow state-less systems that only require
          the vendor image for /usr to boot.

        * systemd-nspawn has gained a new --tmpfs= switch to mount an
          empty tmpfs instance to a specific directory. This is
          particularly useful for making use of the automatic
          reconstruction of /var (see above), by passing --tmpfs=/var.

        * Access modes specified in tmpfiles snippets may now be
          prefixed with "~", which indicates that they shall be masked
          by whether the existing file or directly is currently
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          writable, readable or executable at all. Also, if specified,
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          the sgid/suid/sticky bits will be masked for all

        * A new passive target unit "" has been
          added which is useful for services that shall run before any
          network is configured, for example firewall scripts.

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        * The "floppy" group that previously owned the /dev/fd*
          devices is no longer used. The "disk" group is now used
          instead. Distributions should probably deprecate usage of
          this group.

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        Contributions from: Camilo Aguilar, Christian Hesse, Colin Ian
        King, Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Dave Reisner, David
        Strauss, Denis Tikhomirov, John, Jonathan Liu, Kay Sievers,
        Lennart Poettering, Mantas Mikulėnas, Mark Eichin, Ronny
        Chevalier, Susant Sahani, Thomas Blume, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
        Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Zbigniew

        -- Berlin, 2014-06-11


        * A new "systemd-timesyncd" daemon has been added for
          synchronizing the system clock across the network. It
          implements an SNTP client. In contrast to NTP
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          implementations such as chrony or the NTP reference server,
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          this only implements a client side, and does not bother with
          the full NTP complexity, focusing only on querying time from
          one remote server and synchronizing the local clock to
          it. Unless you intend to serve NTP to networked clients or
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          want to connect to local hardware clocks, this simple NTP
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          client should be more than appropriate for most
          installations. The daemon runs with minimal privileges, and
          has been hooked up with networkd to only operate when
          network connectivity is available. The daemon saves the
          current clock to disk every time a new NTP sync has been
          acquired, and uses this to possibly correct the system clock
          early at bootup, in order to accommodate for systems that
          lack an RTC such as the Raspberry Pi and embedded devices,
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          and to make sure that time monotonically progresses on these
          systems, even if it is not always correct. To make use of
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          this daemon, a new system user and group "systemd-timesync"
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          needs to be created on installation of systemd.

        * The queue "seqnum" interface of libudev has been disabled, as
          it was generally incompatible with device namespacing as
          sequence numbers of devices go "missing" if the devices are
          part of a different namespace.

        * "systemctl list-timers" and "systemctl list-sockets" gained
          a --recursive switch for showing units of these types also
          for all local containers, similar in style to the already
          supported --recursive switch for "systemctl list-units".

        * A new RebootArgument= setting has been added for service
          units, which may be used to specify a kernel reboot argument
          to use when triggering reboots with StartLimitAction=.

        * A new FailureAction= setting has been added for service
          units which may be used to specify an operation to trigger
          when a service fails. This works similarly to
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          StartLimitAction=, but unlike it, controls what is done
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          immediately rather than only after several attempts to
          restart the service in question.

        * hostnamed got updated to also expose the kernel name,
          release, and version on the bus. This is useful for
          executing commands like hostnamectl with the -H switch.
          systemd-analyze makes use of this to properly display
          details when running non-locally.

        * The bootchart tool can now show cgroup information in the
          graphs it generates.

        * The CFS CPU quota cgroup attribute is now exposed for
          services. The new CPUQuota= switch has been added for this
          which takes a percentage value. Setting this will have the
          result that a service may never get more CPU time than the
          specified percentage, even if the machine is otherwise idle.

        * systemd-networkd learned IPIP and SIT tunnel support.

        * LSB init scripts exposing a dependency on $network will now
          get a dependency on rather than simply
 This should bring LSB handling closer to
          what it was on SysV systems.

        * A new kernel option has been added to control
          how fsck shall deal with unclean file systems at boot.

        * The (.ini) configuration file parser will now silently
          ignore sections whose name begins with "X-". This may be
          used to maintain application-specific extension sections in unit

        * machined gained a new API to query the IP addresses of
          registered containers. "machinectl status" has been updated
          to show these addresses in its output.

        * A new call sd_uid_get_display() has been added to the
          sd-login APIs for querying the "primary" session of a
          user. The "primary" session of the user is elected from the
          user's sessions and generally a graphical session is
          preferred over a text one.

        * A minimal systemd-resolved daemon has been added. It
          currently simply acts as a companion to systemd-networkd and
          manages resolv.conf based on per-interface DNS
          configuration, possibly supplied via DHCP. In the long run
          we hope to extend this into a local DNSSEC enabled DNS and
          mDNS cache.

        * The systemd-networkd-wait-online tool is now enabled by
          default. It will delay until a network
          connection has been configured. The tool primarily integrates
          with networkd, but will also make a best effort to make sense
          of network configuration performed in some other way.

        * Two new service options StartupCPUShares= and
          StartupBlockIOWeight= have been added that work similarly to
          CPUShares= and BlockIOWeight= however only apply during
          system startup. This is useful to prioritize certain services
          differently during bootup than during normal runtime.

        * hostnamed has been changed to prefer the statically
          configured hostname in /etc/hostname (unless set to
          'localhost' or empty) over any dynamic one supplied by
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          dhcp. With this change, the rules for picking the hostname
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          match more closely the rules of other configuration settings
          where the local administrator's configuration in /etc always
          overrides any other settings.

        Contributions fron: Ali H. Caliskan, Alison Chaiken, Bas van
        den Berg, Brandon Philips, Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch,
        Dan Kilman, Dave Reisner, David Härdeman, David Herrmann,
        David Strauss, Dimitris Spingos, Djalal Harouni, Eelco
        Dolstra, Evan Nemerson, Florian Albrechtskirchinger, Greg
        Kroah-Hartman, Harald Hoyer, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Jan
        Engelhardt, Jani Nikula, Jason St. John, Jeffrey Clark,
        Jonathan Boulle, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas
        Nykryn, Lukasz Skalski, Łukasz Stelmach, Mantas Mikulėnas,
        Marcel Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Matthew Monaco, Michael
        Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michal Sekletar, Mike Gilbert, Nis
        Martensen, Patrik Flykt, Philip Lorenz, poma, Ray Strode,
        Reyad Attiyat, Robert Milasan, Scott Thrasher, Stef Walter,
        Steven Siloti, Susant Sahani, Tanu Kaskinen, Thomas Bächler,
        Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar
        Lindskog, WaLyong Cho, Will Woods, Zbigniew

        -- Beijing, 2014-05-28


        * When restoring the screen brightness at boot, stay away from
          the darkest setting or from the lowest 5% of the available
          range, depending on which is the larger value of both. This
          should effectively protect the user from rebooting into a
          black screen, should the brightness have been set to minimum
          by accident.

        * sd-login gained a new sd_machine_get_class() call to
          determine the class ("vm" or "container") of a machine
          registered with machined.

        * sd-login gained new calls
          to query the identity of the peer of a local AF_UNIX
          connection. They operate similarly to their sd_pid_get_xyz()

        * PID 1 will now maintain a system-wide system state engine
          with the states "starting", "running", "degraded",
          "maintenance", "stopping". These states are bound to system
          startup, normal runtime, runtime with at least one failed
          service, rescue/emergency mode and system shutdown. This
          state is shown in the "systemctl status" output when no unit
          name is passed. It is useful to determine system state, in
          particularly when doing so for many systems or containers at

        * A new command "list-machines" has been added to "systemctl"
          that lists all local OS containers and shows their system
          state (see above), if systemd runs inside of them.

        * systemctl gained a new "-r" switch to recursively enumerate
          units on all local containers, when used with the
          "list-unit" command (which is the default one that is
          executed when no parameters are specified).

        * The GPT automatic partition discovery logic will now honour
          two GPT partition flags: one may be set on a partition to
          cause it to be mounted read-only, and the other may be set
          on a partition to ignore it during automatic discovery.

        * Two new GPT type UUIDs have been added for automatic root
          partition discovery, for 32-bit and 64-bit ARM. This is not
          particularly useful for discovering the root directory on
          these architectures during bare-metal boots (since UEFI is
          not common there), but still very useful to allow booting of
          ARM disk images in nspawn with the -i option.

        * MAC addresses of interfaces created with nspawn's
          --network-interface= switch will now be generated from the
          machine name, and thus be stable between multiple invocations
          of the container.

        * logind will now automatically remove all IPC objects owned
          by a user if she or he fully logs out. This makes sure that
          users who are logged out cannot continue to consume IPC
          resources. This covers SysV memory, semaphores and message
          queues as well as POSIX shared memory and message
          queues. Traditionally, SysV and POSIX IPC had no life-cycle
          limits. With this functionality, that is corrected. This may
          be turned off by using the RemoveIPC= switch of logind.conf.

        * The systemd-machine-id-setup and tmpfiles tools gained a
          --root= switch to operate on a specific root directory,
          instead of /.

        * journald can now forward logged messages to the TTYs of all
          logged in users ("wall"). This is the default for all
          emergency messages now.

        * A new tool systemd-journal-remote has been added to stream
          journal log messages across the network.

        * /sys/fs/cgroup/ is now mounted read-only after all cgroup
          controller trees are mounted into it. Note that the
          directories mounted beneath it are not read-only. This is a
          security measure and is particularly useful because glibc
          actually includes a search logic to pick any tmpfs it can
          find to implement shm_open() if /dev/shm is not available
          (which it might very well be in namespaced setups).

        * machinectl gained a new "poweroff" command to cleanly power
          down a local OS container.

        * The PrivateDevices= unit file setting will now also drop the
          CAP_MKNOD capability from the capability bound set, and
          imply DevicePolicy=closed.

        * PrivateDevices=, PrivateNetwork= and PrivateTmp= is now used
          comprehensively on all long-running systemd services where
          this is appropriate.

        * systemd-udevd will now run in a disassociated mount
          namespace. To mount directories from udev rules, make sure to
          pull in mount units via SYSTEMD_WANTS properties.

        * The kdbus support gained support for uploading policy into
          the kernel. sd-bus gained support for creating "monitoring"
          connections that can eavesdrop into all bus communication
          for debugging purposes.

        * Timestamps may now be specified in seconds since the UNIX
          epoch Jan 1st, 1970 by specifying "@" followed by the value
          in seconds.

        * Native tcpwrap support in systemd has been removed. tcpwrap
          is old code, not really maintained anymore and has serious
          shortcomings, and better options such as firewalls
          exist. For setups that require tcpwrap usage, please
          consider invoking your socket-activated service via tcpd,
          like on traditional inetd.

        * A new system.conf configuration option
          DefaultTimerAccuracySec= has been added that controls the
          default AccuracySec= setting of .timer units.

        * Timer units gained a new WakeSystem= switch. If enabled,
          timers configured this way will cause the system to resume
          from system suspend (if the system supports that, which most
          do these days).

        * Timer units gained a new Persistent= switch. If enabled,
          timers configured this way will save to disk when they have
          been last triggered. This information is then used on next
          reboot to possible execute overdue timer events, that
          could not take place because the system was powered off.
          This enables simple anacron-like behaviour for timer units.

        * systemctl's "list-timers" will now also list the time a
          timer unit was last triggered in addition to the next time
          it will be triggered.

        * systemd-networkd will now assign predictable IPv4LL
          addresses to its local interfaces.

        Contributions from: Brandon Philips, Daniel Buch, Daniel Mack,
        Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Gerd Hoffmann, Greg
        Kroah-Hartman, Hendrik Brueckner, Jason St. John, Josh
        Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Marc-Antoine
        Perennou, Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Miklos Vajna,
        Patrik Flykt, poma, Sebastian Thorarensen, Thomas Bächler,
        Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tomasz Torcz, Tom Gundersen,
        Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Wieland Hoffmann, Zbigniew

        -- Berlin, 2014-03-25


        * A new unit file setting RestrictAddressFamilies= has been
          added to restrict which socket address families unit
          processes gain access to. This takes address family names
          like "AF_INET" or "AF_UNIX", and is useful to minimize the
          attack surface of services via exotic protocol stacks. This
          is built on seccomp system call filters.

        * Two new unit file settings RuntimeDirectory= and
          RuntimeDirectoryMode= have been added that may be used to
          manage a per-daemon runtime directories below /run. This is
          an alternative for setting up directory permissions with
          tmpfiles snippets, and has the advantage that the runtime
          directory's lifetime is bound to the daemon runtime and that
          the daemon starts up with an empty directory each time. This
          is particularly useful when writing services that drop
          privileges using the User= or Group= setting.

        * The DeviceAllow= unit setting now supports globbing for
          matching against device group names.

        * The systemd configuration file system.conf gained new
          settings DefaultCPUAccounting=, DefaultBlockIOAccounting=,
          DefaultMemoryAccounting= to globally turn on/off accounting
          for specific resources (cgroups) for all units. These
          settings may still be overridden individually in each unit

        * systemd-gpt-auto-generator is now able to discover /srv and
          root partitions in addition to /home and swap partitions. It
          also supports LUKS-encrypted partitions now. With this in
          place, automatic discovery of partitions to mount following
          the Discoverable Partitions Specification
          is now a lot more complete. This allows booting without
          /etc/fstab and without root= on the kernel command line on
          systems prepared appropriately.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --image= switch which allows
          booting up disk images and Linux installations on any block
          device that follow the Discoverable Partitions Specification
          (see above). This means that installations made with
          appropriately updated installers may now be started and
          deployed using container managers, completely
          unmodified. (We hope that libvirt-lxc will add support for
          this feature soon, too.)

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --network-macvlan= setting to
          set up a private macvlan interface for the
          container. Similarly, systemd-networkd gained a new
          Kind=macvlan setting in .netdev files.

        * systemd-networkd now supports configuring local addresses
          using IPv4LL.

        * A new tool systemd-network-wait-online has been added to
          synchronously wait for network connectivity using

        * The sd-bus.h bus API gained a new sd_bus_track object for
          tracking the life-cycle of bus peers. Note that sd-bus.h is
          still not a public API though (unless you specify
          --enable-kdbus on the configure command line, which however
          voids your warranty and you get no API stability guarantee).

        * The $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR runtime directories for each user are
          now individual tmpfs instances, which has the benefit of
          introducing separate pools for each user, with individual
          size limits, and thus making sure that unprivileged clients
          can no longer negatively impact the system or other users by
          filling up their $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR. A new logind.conf setting
          RuntimeDirectorySize= has been introduced that allows
          controlling the default size limit for all users. It
          defaults to 10% of the available physical memory. This is no
          replacement for quotas on tmpfs though (which the kernel
          still does not support), as /dev/shm and /tmp are still
          shared resources used by both the system and unprivileged

        * logind will now automatically turn off automatic suspending
          on laptop lid close when more than one display is
          connected. This was previously expected to be implemented
          individually in desktop environments (such as GNOME),
          however has been added to logind now, in order to fix a
          boot-time race where a desktop environment might not have
          been started yet and thus not been able to take an inhibitor
          lock at the time where logind already suspends the system
          due to a closed lid.

        * logind will now wait at least 30s after each system
          suspend/resume cycle, and 3min after system boot before
          suspending the system due to a closed laptop lid. This
          should give USB docking stations and similar enough time to
          be probed and configured after system resume and boot in
          order to then act as suspend blocker.

        * systemd-run gained a new --property= setting which allows
          initialization of resource control properties (and others)
          for the created scope or service unit. Example: "systemd-run
          --property=BlockIOWeight=10 updatedb" may be used to run
          updatedb at a low block IO scheduling weight.

        * systemd-run's --uid=, --gid=, --setenv=, --setenv= switches
          now also work in --scope mode.

        * When systemd is compiled with kdbus support, basic support
          for enforced policies is now in place. (Note that enabling
          kdbus still voids your warranty and no API compatibility
          promises are made.)

        Contributions from: Andrey Borzenkov, Ansgar Burchardt, Armin
        K., Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Djalal Harouni,
        Harald Hoyer, Henrik Grindal Bakken, Jasper St. Pierre, Kay
        Sievers, Kieran Clancy, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn,
        Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann, Mark Oteiza, Martin Pitt,
        Mike Gilbert, Peter Rajnoha, poma, Samuli Suominen, Stef
        Walter, Susant Sahani, Tero Roponen, Thomas Andersen, Thomas
        Bächler, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tomasz Torcz, Tom
        Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Uoti Urpala, Zachary Cook,
        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        -- Berlin, 2014-03-12


        * systemd will now relabel /dev after loading the SMACK policy
          according to SMACK rules.

        * A new unit file option AppArmorProfile= has been added to
          set the AppArmor profile for the processes of a unit.

        * A new condition check ConditionArchitecture= has been added
          to conditionalize units based on the system architecture, as
          reported by uname()'s "machine" field.

        * systemd-networkd now supports matching on the system
          virtualization, architecture, kernel command line, host name
          and machine ID.

        * logind is now a lot more aggressive when suspending the
          machine due to a closed laptop lid. Instead of acting only
          on the lid close action, it will continuously watch the lid
          status and act on it. This is useful for laptops where the
          power button is on the outside of the chassis so that it can
          be reached without opening the lid (such as the Lenovo
          Yoga). On those machines, logind will now immediately
          re-suspend the machine if the power button has been
          accidentally pressed while the laptop was suspended and in a
          backpack or similar.

        * logind will now watch SW_DOCK switches and inhibit reaction
          to the lid switch if it is pressed. This means that logind
          will not suspend the machine anymore if the lid is closed
          and the system is docked, if the laptop supports SW_DOCK
          notifications via the input layer. Note that ACPI docking
          stations do not generate this currently. Also note that this
          logic is usually not fully sufficient and Desktop
          Environments should take a lid switch inhibitor lock when an
          external display is connected, as systemd will not watch
          this on its own.

        * nspawn will now make use of the devices cgroup controller by
          default, and only permit creation of and access to the usual
          API device nodes like /dev/null or /dev/random, as well as
          access to (but not creation of) the pty devices.

        * We will now ship a default .network file for
          systemd-networkd that automatically configures DHCP for
          network interfaces created by nspawn's --network-veth or
          --network-bridge= switches.

        * systemd will now understand the usual M, K, G, T suffixes
          according to SI conventions (i.e. to the base 1000) when
          referring to throughput and hardware metrics. It will stay
          with IEC conventions (i.e. to the base 1024) for software
          metrics, according to what is customary according to
          Wikipedia. We explicitly document which base applies for
          each configuration option.

        * The DeviceAllow= setting in unit files now supports a syntax
          to whitelist an entire group of devices node majors at once,
          based on the /proc/devices listing. For example, with the
          string "char-pts", it is now possible to whitelist all
          current and future pseudo-TTYs at once.

        * sd-event learned a new "post" event source. Event sources of
          this type are triggered by the dispatching of any event
          source of a type that is not "post". This is useful for
          implementing clean-up and check event sources that are
          triggered by other work being done in the program.

        * systemd-networkd is no longer statically enabled, but uses
          the usual [Install] sections so that it can be
          enabled/disabled using systemctl. It still is enabled by
          default however.

        * When creating a veth interface pair with systemd-nspawn, the
          host side will now be prefixed with "vb-" if
          --network-bridge= is used, and with "ve-" if --network-veth
          is used. This way, it is easy to distinguish these cases on
          the host, for example to apply different configuration to
          them with systemd-networkd.

        * The compatibility libraries for,
, and
 do not make use of IFUNC
          anymore. Instead, we now build multiple times
          under these alternative names. This means that the footprint
          is drastically increased, but given that these are
          transitional compatibility libraries, this should not matter
          much. This change has been made necessary to support the ARM
          platform for these compatibility libraries, as the ARM
          toolchain is not really at the same level as the toolchain
          for other architectures like x86 and does not support
          IFUNC. Please make sure to use --enable-compat-libs only
          during a transitional period!

        Contributions from: Andreas Fuchs, Armin K., Colin Walters,
        Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Djalal Harouni,
        Holger Schurig, Jason A. Donenfeld, Jason St. John, Jasper
        St. Pierre, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Łukasz Stelmach,
        Marcel Holtmann, Michael Scherer, Michal Sekletar, Mike
        Gilbert, Samuli Suominen, Thomas Bächler, Thomas Hindoe
        Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog,
        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        -- Berlin, 2014-02-24


        * A new component "systemd-networkd" has been added that can
          be used to configure local network interfaces statically or
          via DHCP. It is capable of bringing up bridges, VLANs, and
          bonding. Currently, no hook-ups for interactive network
          configuration are provided. Use this for your initrd,
          container, embedded, or server setup if you need a simple,
          yet powerful, network configuration solution. This
          configuration subsystem is quite nifty, as it allows wildcard
          hotplug matching in interfaces. For example, with a single
          configuration snippet, you can configure that all Ethernet
          interfaces showing up are automatically added to a bridge,
          or similar. It supports link-sensing and more.

        * A new tool "systemd-socket-proxyd" has been added which can
          act as a bidirectional proxy for TCP sockets. This is
          useful for adding socket activation support to services that
          do not actually support socket activation, including virtual
          machines and the like.

        * Add a new tool to save/restore rfkill state on

        * Save/restore state of keyboard backlights in addition to
          display backlights on shutdown/boot.

        * udev learned a new SECLABEL{} construct to label device
          nodes with a specific security label when they appear. For
          now, only SECLABEL{selinux} is supported, but the syntax is
          prepared for additional security frameworks.

        * udev gained a new scheme to configure link-level attributes
          from files in /etc/systemd/network/*.link. These files can
          match against MAC address, device path, driver name and type,
          and will apply attributes like the naming policy, link speed,
          MTU, duplex settings, Wake-on-LAN settings, MAC address, MAC
          address assignment policy (randomized, ...).

        * The configuration of network interface naming rules for
          "permanent interface names" has changed: a new NamePolicy=
          setting in the [Link] section of .link files determines the
          priority of possible naming schemes (onboard, slot, mac,
          path). The default value of this setting is determined by
          /usr/lib/net/links/ Old
          80-net-name-slot.rules udev configuration file has been
          removed, so local configuration overriding this file should
          be adapated to override instead.

        * When the User= switch is used in a unit file, also
          initialize $SHELL= based on the user database entry.

        * systemd no longer depends on libdbus. All communication is
          now done with sd-bus, systemd's low-level bus library

        * kdbus support has been added to PID 1 itself. When kdbus is
          enabled, this causes PID 1 to set up the system bus and
          enable support for a new ".busname" unit type that
          encapsulates bus name activation on kdbus. It works a little
          bit like ".socket" units, except for bus names. A new
          generator has been added that converts classic dbus1 service
          activation files automatically into native systemd .busname
          and .service units.

        * sd-bus: add a light-weight vtable implementation that allows
          defining objects on the bus with a simple static const
          vtable array of its methods, signals and properties.

        * systemd will not generate or install static dbus
          introspection data anymore to /usr/share/dbus-1/interfaces,
          as the precise format of these files is unclear, and
          nothing makes use of it.

        * A proxy daemon is now provided to proxy clients connecting
          via classic D-Bus AF_UNIX sockets to kdbus, to provide full
          compatibility with classic D-Bus.

        * A bus driver implementation has been added that supports the
          classic D-Bus bus driver calls on kdbus, also for
          compatibility purposes.

        * A new API "sd-event.h" has been added that implements a
          minimal event loop API built around epoll. It provides a
          couple of features that direct epoll usage is lacking:
          prioritization of events, scales to large numbers of timer
          events, per-event timer slack (accuracy), system-wide
          coalescing of timer events, exit handlers, watchdog
          supervision support using systemd's sd_notify() API, child
          process handling.

        * A new API "sd-rntl.h" has been added that provides an API
          around the route netlink interface of the kernel, similar in
          style to "sd-bus.h".

        * A new API "sd-dhcp-client.h" has been added that provides a
          small DHCPv4 client-side implementation. This is used by

        * There is a new kernel command line option
          "systemd.restore_state=0|1". When set to "0", none of the
          systemd tools will restore saved runtime state to hardware
          devices. More specifically, the rfkill and backlight states
          are not restored.

        * The FsckPassNo= compatibility option in mount/service units
          has been removed. The fstab generator will now add the
          necessary dependencies automatically, and does not require
          PID1's support for that anymore.

        * journalctl gained a new switch, --list-boots, that lists
          recent boots with their times and boot IDs.

        * The various tools like systemctl, loginctl, timedatectl,
          busctl, systemd-run, ... have gained a new switch "-M" to
          connect to a specific, local OS container (as direct
          connection, without requiring SSH). This works on any
          container that is registered with machined, such as those
          created by libvirt-lxc or nspawn.

        * systemd-run and systemd-analyze also gained support for "-H"
          to connect to remote hosts via SSH. This is particularly
          useful for systemd-run because it enables queuing of jobs
          onto remote systems.

        * machinectl gained a new command "login" to open a getty
          login in any local container. This works with any container
          that is registered with machined (such as those created by
          libvirt-lxc or nspawn), and which runs systemd inside.

        * machinectl gained a new "reboot" command that may be used to
          trigger a reboot on a specific container that is registered
          with machined. This works on any container that runs an init
          system of some kind.

        * systemctl gained a new "list-timers" command to print a nice
          listing of installed timer units with the times they elapse

        * Alternative reboot() parameters may now be specified on the
          "systemctl reboot" command line and are passed to the
          reboot() system call.

        * systemctl gained a new --job-mode= switch to configure the
          mode to queue a job with. This is a more generic version of
          --fail, --irreversible, and --ignore-dependencies, which are
          still available but not advertised anymore.

        * /etc/systemd/system.conf gained new settings to configure
          various default timeouts of units, as well as the default
          start limit interval and burst. These may still be overridden
          within each Unit.

        * PID1 will now export on the bus profile data of the security
          policy upload process (such as the SELinux policy upload to
          the kernel).

        * journald: when forwarding logs to the console, include
          timestamps (following the setting in

        * OnCalendar= in timer units now understands the special
          strings "yearly" and "annually". (Both are equivalent)

        * The accuracy of timer units is now configurable with the new
          AccuracySec= setting. It defaults to 1min.

        * A new dependency type JoinsNamespaceOf= has been added that
          allows running two services within the same /tmp and network
          namespace, if PrivateNetwork= or PrivateTmp= are used.

        * A new command "cat" has been added to systemctl. It outputs
          the original unit file of a unit, and concatenates the
          contents of additional "drop-in" unit file snippets, so that
          the full configuration is shown.

        * systemctl now supports globbing on the various "list-xyz"
          commands, like "list-units" or "list-sockets", as well as on
          those commands which take multiple unit names.

        * journalctl's --unit= switch gained support for globbing.

        * All systemd daemons now make use of the watchdog logic so
          that systemd automatically notices when they hang.

        * If the $container_ttys environment variable is set,
          getty-generator will automatically spawn a getty for each
          listed tty. This is useful for container managers to request
          login gettys to be spawned on as many ttys as needed.

        * %h, %s, %U specifier support is not available anymore when
          used in unit files for PID 1. This is because NSS calls are
          not safe from PID 1. They stay available for --user
          instances of systemd, and as special case for the root user.

        * loginctl gained a new "--no-legend" switch to turn off output
          of the legend text.

        * The "sd-login.h" API gained three new calls:
          sd_session_is_remote(), sd_session_get_remote_user(),
          sd_session_get_remote_host() to query information about
          remote sessions.

        * The udev hardware database now also carries vendor/product
          information of SDIO devices.

        * The "sd-daemon.h" API gained a new sd_watchdog_enabled() to
          determine whether watchdog notifications are requested by
          the system manager.

        * Socket-activated per-connection services now include a
          short description of the connection parameters in the

        * tmpfiles gained a new "--boot" option. When this is not used,
          only lines where the command character is not suffixed with
          "!" are executed. When this option is specified, those
          options are executed too. This partitions tmpfiles
          directives into those that can be safely executed at any
          time, and those which should be run only at boot (for
          example, a line that creates /run/nologin).

        * A new API "sd-resolve.h" has been added which provides a simple
          asynchronous wrapper around glibc NSS host name resolution
          calls, such as getaddrinfo(). In contrast to glibc's
          getaddrinfo_a(), it does not use signals. In contrast to most
          other asynchronous name resolution libraries, this one does
          not reimplement DNS, but reuses NSS, so that alternate
          host name resolution systems continue to work, such as mDNS,
          LDAP, etc. This API is based on libasyncns, but it has been
          cleaned up for inclusion in systemd.

        * The APIs "sd-journal.h", "sd-login.h", "sd-id128.h",
          "sd-daemon.h" are no longer found in individual libraries
, Instead, we have
          merged them into a single library,, which
          provides all symbols. The reason for this is cyclic
          dependencies, as these libraries tend to use each other's
          symbols. So far, we have managed to workaround that by linking
          a copy of a good part of our code into each of these
          libraries again and again, which, however, makes certain
          things hard to do, like sharing static variables. Also, it
          substantially increases footprint. With this change, there
          is only one library for the basic APIs systemd
          provides. Also, "sd-bus.h", "sd-memfd.h", "sd-event.h",
          "sd-rtnl.h", "sd-resolve.h", "sd-utf8.h" are found in this
          library as well, however are subject to the --enable-kdbus
          switch (see below). Note that "sd-dhcp-client.h" is not part
          of this library (this is because it only consumes, never
          provides, services of/to other APIs). To make the transition
          easy from the separate libraries to the unified one, we
          provide the --enable-compat-libs compile-time switch which
          will generate stub libraries that are compatible with the
          old ones but redirect all calls to the new one.

        * All of the kdbus logic and the new APIs "sd-bus.h",
          "sd-memfd.h", "sd-event.h", "sd-rtnl.h", "sd-resolve.h",
          and "sd-utf8.h" are compile-time optional via the
          "--enable-kdbus" switch, and they are not compiled in by
          default. To make use of kdbus, you have to explicitly enable
          the switch. Note however, that neither the kernel nor the
          userspace API for all of this is considered stable yet. We
          want to maintain the freedom to still change the APIs for
          now. By specifying this build-time switch, you acknowledge
          that you are aware of the instability of the current

        * Also, note that while kdbus is pretty much complete,
          it lacks one thing: proper policy support. This means you
          can build a fully working system with all features; however,
          it will be highly insecure. Policy support will be added in
          one of the next releases, at the same time that we will
          declare the APIs stable.

        * When the kernel command-line argument "kdbus" is specified,
          systemd will automatically load the kdbus.ko kernel module. At
          this stage of development, it is only useful for testing kdbus
          and should not be used in production. Note: if "--enable-kdbus"
          is specified, and the kdbus.ko kernel module is available, and
          "kdbus" is added to the kernel command line, the entire system
          runs with kdbus instead of dbus-daemon, with the above mentioned
          problem of missing the system policy enforcement. Also a future
          version of kdbus.ko or a newer systemd will not be compatible with
          each other, and will unlikely be able to boot the machine if only
          one of them is updated.

        * systemctl gained a new "import-environment" command which
          uploads the caller's environment (or parts thereof) into the
          service manager so that it is inherited by services started
          by the manager. This is useful to upload variables like
          $DISPLAY into the user service manager.

        * A new PrivateDevices= switch has been added to service units
          which allows running a service with a namespaced /dev
          directory that does not contain any device nodes for
          physical devices. More specifically, it only includes devices
          such as /dev/null, /dev/urandom, and /dev/zero which are API
          entry points.

        * logind has been extended to support behaviour like VT
          switching on seats that do not support a VT. This makes
          multi-session available on seats that are not the first seat
          (seat0), and on systems where kernel support for VTs has
          been disabled at compile-time.

        * If a process holds a delay lock for system sleep or shutdown
          and fails to release it in time, we will now log its
          identity. This makes it easier to identify processes that
          cause slow suspends or power-offs.

        * When parsing /etc/crypttab, support for a new key-slot=
          option as supported by Debian is added. It allows indicating
          which LUKS slot to use on disk, speeding up key loading.

        * The sd_journald_sendv() API call has been checked and
          officially declared to be async-signal-safe so that it may
          be invoked from signal handlers for logging purposes.

        * Boot-time status output is now enabled automatically after a
          short timeout if boot does not progress, in order to give
          the user an indication what she or he is waiting for.

        * The boot-time output has been improved to show how much time
          remains until jobs expire.

        * The KillMode= switch in service units gained a new possible
          value "mixed". If set, and the unit is shut down, then the
          initial SIGTERM signal is sent only to the main daemon
          process, while the following SIGKILL signal is sent to
          all remaining processes of the service.

        * When a scope unit is registered, a new property "Controller"
          may be set. If set to a valid bus name, systemd will send a
          RequestStop() signal to this name when it would like to shut
          down the scope. This may be used to hook manager logic into
          the shutdown logic of scope units. Also, scope units may now
          be put in a special "abandoned" state, in which case the
          manager process which created them takes no further
          responsibilities for it.

        * When reading unit files, systemd will now verify
          the access mode of these files, and warn about certain
          suspicious combinations. This has been added to make it
          easier to track down packaging bugs where unit files are
          marked executable or world-writable.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new "--setenv=" switch to set
          container-wide environment variables. The similar option in
          systemd-activate was renamed from "--environment=" to
          "--setenv=" for consistency.

        * systemd-nspawn has been updated to create a new kdbus domain
          for each container that is invoked, thus allowing each
          container to have its own set of system and user buses,
          independent of the host.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --drop-capability= switch to run
          the container with less capabilities than the default. Both
          --drop-capability= and --capability= now take the special
          string "all" for dropping or keeping all capabilities.

        * systemd-nspawn gained new switches for executing containers
          with specific SELinux labels set.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --quiet switch to not generate
          any additional output but the container's own console

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --share-system switch to run a
          container without PID namespacing enabled.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --register= switch to control
          whether the container is registered with systemd-machined or
          not. This is useful for containers that do not run full
          OS images, but only specific apps.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --keep-unit which may be used
          when invoked as the only program from a service unit, and
          results in registration of the unit service itself in
          systemd-machined, instead of a newly opened scope unit.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --network-interface= switch for
          moving arbitrary interfaces to the container. The new
          --network-veth switch creates a virtual Ethernet connection
          between host and container. The new --network-bridge=
          switch then allows assigning the host side of this virtual
          Ethernet connection to a bridge device.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --personality= switch for
          setting the kernel personality for the container. This is
          useful when running a 32-bit container on a 64-bit host. A
          similar option Personality= is now also available for service
          units to use.

        * logind will now also track a "Desktop" identifier for each
          session which encodes the desktop environment of it. This is
          useful for desktop environments that want to identify
          multiple running sessions of itself easily.

        * A new SELinuxContext= setting for service units has been
          added that allows setting a specific SELinux execution
          context for a service.

        * Most systemd client tools will now honour $SYSTEMD_LESS for
          settings of the "less" pager. By default, these tools will
          override $LESS to allow certain operations to work, such as
          jump-to-the-end. With $SYSTEMD_LESS, it is possible to
          influence this logic.

        * systemd's "seccomp" hook-up has been changed to make use of
          the libseccomp library instead of using its own
          implementation. This has benefits for portability among
          other things.

        * For usage together with SystemCallFilter=, a new
          SystemCallErrorNumber= setting has been introduced that
          allows configuration of a system error number to be returned
          on filtered system calls, instead of immediately killing the
          process. Also, SystemCallArchitectures= has been added to
          limit access to system calls of a particular architecture
          (in order to turn off support for unused secondary
          architectures). There is also a global
          SystemCallArchitectures= setting in system.conf now to turn
          off support for non-native system calls system-wide.

        * systemd requires a kernel with a working name_to_handle_at(),
          please see the kernel config requirements in the README file.

        Contributions from: Adam Williamson, Alex Jia, Anatol Pomozov,
        Ansgar Burchardt, AppleBloom, Auke Kok, Bastien Nocera,
        Chengwei Yang, Christian Seiler, Colin Guthrie, Colin Walters,
        Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Daniele Medri, Daniel J
        Walsh, Daniel Mack, Dan McGee, Dave Reisner, David Coppa,
        David Herrmann, David Strauss, Djalal Harouni, Dmitry Pisklov,
        Elia Pinto, Florian Weimer, George McCollister, Goffredo
        Baroncelli, Greg Kroah-Hartman, Hendrik Brueckner, Igor
        Zhbanov, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jason A. Donenfeld,
        Jason St. John, Jasper St. Pierre, Jóhann B. Guðmundsson, Jose
        Ignacio Naranjo, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, Kristian Høgsberg,
        Lennart Poettering, Lubomir Rintel, Lukas Nykryn, Lukasz
        Skalski, Łukasz Stelmach, Luke Shumaker, Mantas Mikulėnas,
        Marc-Antoine Perennou, Marcel Holtmann, Marcos Felipe Rasia de
        Mello, Marko Myllynen, Martin Pitt, Matthew Monaco, Michael
        Marineau, Michael Scherer, Michał Górny, Michal Sekletar,
        Michele Curti, Oleksii Shevchuk, Olivier Brunel, Patrik Flykt,
        Pavel Holica, Raudi, Richard Marko, Ronny Chevalier, Sébastien
        Luttringer, Sergey Ptashnick, Shawn Landden, Simon Peeters,
        Stefan Beller, Susant Sahani, Sylvain Plantefeve, Sylvia Else,
        Tero Roponen, Thomas Bächler, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen,
        Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Unai Uribarri, Václav
        Pavlín, Vincent Batts, WaLyong Cho, William Giokas, Yang
        Zhiyong, Yin Kangkai, Yuxuan Shui, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        -- Berlin, 2014-02-20

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        * logind has gained support for facilitating privileged input
          and drm device access for unprivileged clients. This work is
          useful to allow Wayland display servers (and similar
          programs, such as kmscon) to run under the user's ID and
          access input and drm devices which are normally
          protected. When this is used (and the kernel is new enough)
          logind will "mute" IO on the file descriptors passed to
          Wayland as long as it is in the background and "unmute" it
          if it returns into the foreground. This allows secure
          session switching without allowing background sessions to
          eavesdrop on input and display data. This also introduces
          session switching support if VT support is turned off in the
          kernel, and on seats that are not seat0.

        * A new kernel command line option luks.options= is understood
          now which allows specifiying LUKS options for usage for LUKS
          encrypted partitions specified with luks.uuid=.

        * tmpfiles.d(5) snippets may now use specifier expansion in
          path names. More specifically %m, %b, %H, %v, are now
          replaced by the local machine id, boot id, hostname, and
          kernel version number.

        * A new tmpfiles.d(5) command "m" has been introduced which
          may be used to change the owner/group/access mode of a file
          or directory if it exists, but do nothing if it does not.
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        * This release removes high-level support for the
          MemorySoftLimit= cgroup setting. The underlying kernel
          cgroup attribute memory.soft_limit= is currently badly
          designed and likely to be removed from the kernel API in its
          current form, hence we should not expose it for now.
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        * The memory.use_hierarchy cgroup attribute is now enabled for
          all cgroups systemd creates in the memory cgroup
          hierarchy. This option is likely to be come the built-in
          default in the kernel anyway, and the non-hierarchial mode
          never made much sense in the intrinsically hierarchial
          cgroup system.

        * A new field _SYSTEMD_SLICE= is logged along with all journal
          messages containing the slice a message was generated
          from. This is useful to allow easy per-customer filtering of
          logs among other things.

        * systemd-journald will no longer adjust the group of journal
          files it creates to the "systemd-journal" group. Instead we
          rely on the journal directory to be owned by the
          "systemd-journal" group, and its setgid bit set, so that the
          kernel file system layer will automatically enforce that
          journal files inherit this group assignment. The reason for
          this change is that we cannot allow NSS look-ups from
          journald which would be necessary to resolve
          "systemd-journal" to a numeric GID, because this might
          create deadlocks if NSS involves synchronous queries to
          other daemons (such as nscd, or sssd) which in turn are
          logging clients of journald and might block on it, which
          would then dead lock. A tmpfiles.d(5) snippet included in
          systemd will make sure the setgid bit and group are
          properly set on the journal directory if it exists on every
          boot. However, we recommend adjusting it manually after
          upgrades too (or from RPM scriptlets), so that the change is
          not delayed until next reboot.

        * Backlight and random seed files in /var/lib/ have moved into
          the /var/lib/systemd/ directory, in order to centralize all
          systemd generated files in one directory.

        * Boot time performance measurements (as displayed by
          "systemd-analyze" for example) will now read ACPI 5.0 FPDT
          performance information if that's available to determine how
          much time BIOS and boot loader initialization required. With
          a sufficiently new BIOS you hence no longer need to boot
          with Gummiboot to get access to such information.

        Contributions from: Andrey Borzenkov, Chen Jie, Colin Walters,
        Cristian Rodríguez, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, David
        Mackey, David Strauss, Eelco Dolstra, Evan Callicoat, Gao
        feng, Harald Hoyer, Jimmie Tauriainen, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Martin Pitt,
        Michael Scherer, Michał Górny, Mike Gilbert, Patrick McCarty,
        Sebastian Ott, Tom Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        -- Berlin, 2013-10-02


        * The Restart= option for services now understands a new
          on-watchdog setting, which will restart the service
          automatically if the service stops sending out watchdog keep
          alive messages (as configured with WatchdogSec=).

        * The getty generator (which is responsible for bringing up a
          getty on configured serial consoles) will no longer only
          start a getty on the primary kernel console but on all
          others, too. This makes the order in which console= is
          specified on the kernel command line less important.

        * libsystemd-logind gained a new sd_session_get_vt() call to
          retrieve the VT number of a session.

        * If the option "tries=0" is set for an entry of /etc/crypttab
          its passphrase is queried indefinitely instead of any
          maximum number of tries.

        * If a service with a configure PID file terminates its PID
          file will now be removed automatically if it still exists
          afterwards. This should put an end to stale PID files.

        * systemd-run will now also take relative binary path names
          for execution and no longer insists on absolute paths.

        * InaccessibleDirectories= and ReadOnlyDirectories= now take
          paths that are optionally prefixed with "-" to indicate that
          it should not be considered a failure if they do not exist.
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        * journalctl -o (and similar commands) now understands a new
          output mode "short-precise", it is similar to "short" but
          shows timestamps with usec accuracy.

        * The option "discard" (as known from Debian) is now
          synonymous to "allow-discards" in /etc/crypttab. In fact,
          "discard" is preferred now (since it is easier to remember
          and type).

        * Some licensing clean-ups were made, so that more code is now
          LGPL-2.1 licensed than before.

        * A minimal tool to save/restore the display backlight
          brightness across reboots has been added. It will store the
          backlight setting as late as possible at shutdown, and
          restore it as early as possible during reboot.

        * A logic to automatically discover and enable home and swap
          partitions on GPT disks has been added. With this in place
          /etc/fstab becomes optional for many setups as systemd can
          discover certain partitions located on the root disk
          automatically. Home partitions are recognized under their
          GPT type ID 933ac7e12eb44f13b8440e14e2aef915. Swap
          partitions are recognized under their GPT type ID

        * systemd will no longer pass any environment from the kernel
          or initrd to system services. If you want to set an
          environment for all services, do so via the kernel command
          line systemd.setenv= assignment.

        * The systemd-sysctl tool no longer natively reads the file
          /etc/sysctl.conf. If desired, the file should be symlinked
          from /etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf. Apart from providing
          legacy support by a symlink rather than built-in code, it
          also makes the otherwise hidden order of application of the
          different files visible. (Note that this partly reverts to a
          pre-198 application order of sysctl knobs!)

        * The "systemctl set-log-level" and "systemctl dump" commands
          have been moved to systemd-analyze.

        * systemd-run learned the new --remain-after-exit switch,
          which causes the scope unit not to be cleaned up
          automatically after the process terminated.

        * tmpfiles learned a new --exclude-prefix= switch to exclude
          certain paths from operation.

        * journald will now automatically flush all messages to disk
          as soon as a message of the log priorities CRIT, ALERT or
          EMERG is received.

        Contributions from: Andrew Cook, Brandon Philips, Christian
        Hesse, Christoph Junghans, Colin Walters, Daniel Schaal,
        Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Gao feng, George
        McCollister, Giovanni Campagna, Hannes Reinecke, Harald Hoyer,
        Herczeg Zsolt, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Jan Engelhardt,
        Jesper Larsen, Kay Sievers, Khem Raj, Lennart Poettering,
        Lukas Nykryn, Maciej Wereski, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel
        Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Marineau,
        Michael Scherer, Michael Stapelberg, Michal Sekletar, Michał
        Górny, Olivier Brunel, Ondrej Balaz, Ronny Chevalier, Shawn
        Landden, Steven Hiscocks, Thomas Bächler, Thomas Hindoe
        Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar, WANG Chao,
        William Giokas, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        -- Berlin, 2013-09-13


        * The documentation has been updated to cover the various new
          concepts introduced with 205.

        * Unit files now understand the new %v specifier which
          resolves to the kernel version string as returned by "uname

        * systemctl now supports filtering the unit list output by
          load state, active state and sub state, using the new
          --state= parameter.

        * "systemctl status" will now show the results of the
          condition checks (like ConditionPathExists= and similar) of
          the last start attempts of the unit. They are also logged to
          the journal.

        * "journalctl -b" may now be used to look for boot output of a
          specific boot. Try "journalctl -b -1" for the previous boot,
          but the syntax is substantially more powerful.

        * "journalctl --show-cursor" has been added which prints the
          cursor string the last shown log line. This may then be used
          with the new "journalctl --after-cursor=" switch to continue
          browsing logs from that point on.

        * "journalctl --force" may now be used to force regeneration
          of an FSS key.

        * Creation of "dead" device nodes has been moved from udev
          into kmod and tmpfiles. Previously, udev would read the kmod
          databases to pre-generate dead device nodes based on meta
          information contained in kernel modules, so that these would
          be auto-loaded on access rather then at boot. As this
          does not really have much to do with the exposing actual
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          kernel devices to userspace this has always been slightly
          alien in the udev codebase. Following the new scheme kmod
          will now generate a runtime snippet for tmpfiles from the
          module meta information and it now is tmpfiles' job to the
          create the nodes. This also allows overriding access and
          other parameters for the nodes using the usual tmpfiles
          facilities. As side effect this allows us to remove the
          CAP_SYS_MKNOD capability bit from udevd entirely.

        * logind's device ACLs may now be applied to these "dead"
          devices nodes too, thus finally allowing managed access to
          devices such as /dev/snd/sequencer whithout loading the
          backing module right-away.

        * A new RPM macro has been added that may be used to apply
          tmpfiles configuration during package installation.

        * systemd-detect-virt and ConditionVirtualization= now can
          detect User-Mode-Linux machines (UML).

        * journald will now implicitly log the effective capabilities
          set of processes in the message metadata.

        * systemd-cryptsetup has gained support for TrueCrypt volumes.

        * The initrd interface has been simplified (more specifically,
          support for passing performance data via environment
          variables and fsck results via files in /run has been
          removed). These features were non-essential, and are
          nowadays available in a much nicer way by having systemd in
          the initrd serialize its state and have the hosts systemd
          deserialize it again.

        * The udev "keymap" data files and tools to apply keyboard
          specific mappings of scan to key codes, and force-release
          scan code lists have been entirely replaced by a udev
          "keyboard" builtin and a hwdb data file.

        * systemd will now honour the kernel's "quiet" command line
          argument also during late shutdown, resulting in a
          completely silent shutdown when used.

        * There's now an option to control the SO_REUSEPORT socket
          option in .socket units.

        * Instance units will now automatically get a per-template
          subslice of system.slice unless something else is explicitly
          configured. For example, instances of sshd@.service will now
          implicitly be placed in system-sshd.slice rather than
          system.slice as before.

        * Test coverage support may now be enabled at build time.

        Contributions from: Dave Reisner, Frederic Crozat, Harald
        Hoyer, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Jan Engelhardt, Jan
        Janssen, Jason St. John, Jesper Larsen, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Maciej Wereski, Martin Pitt, Michael
        Olbrich, Ramkumar Ramachandra, Ross Lagerwall, Shawn Landden,
        Thomas H.P. Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Tomasz Torcz, William
        Giokas, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        -- Berlin, 2013-07-23


        * Two new unit types have been introduced:

          Scope units are very similar to service units, however, are
          created out of pre-existing processes -- instead of PID 1
          forking off the processes. By using scope units it is
          possible for system services and applications to group their
          own child processes (worker processes) in a powerful way
          which then maybe used to organize them, or kill them
          together, or apply resource limits on them.

          Slice units may be used to partition system resources in an
          hierarchial fashion and then assign other units to them. By
          default there are now three slices: system.slice (for all
          system services), user.slice (for all user sessions),
          machine.slice (for VMs and containers).

          Slices and scopes have been introduced primarily in
          context of the work to move cgroup handling to a
          single-writer scheme, where only PID 1
          creates/removes/manages cgroups.

        * There's a new concept of "transient" units. In contrast to
          normal units these units are created via an API at runtime,
          not from configuration from disk. More specifically this
          means it is now possible to run arbitrary programs as
          independent services, with all execution parameters passed
          in via bus APIs rather than read from disk. Transient units
          make systemd substantially more dynamic then it ever was,
          and useful as a general batch manager.

        * logind has been updated to make use of scope and slice units
          for managing user sessions. As a user logs in he will get
          his own private slice unit, to which all sessions are added
          as scope units. We also added support for automatically
          adding an instance of user@.service for the user into the
          slice. Effectively logind will no longer create cgroup
          hierarchies on its own now, it will defer entirely to PID 1
          for this by means of scope, service and slice units. Since
          user sessions this way become entities managed by PID 1
          the output of "systemctl" is now a lot more comprehensive.

        * A new mini-daemon "systemd-machined" has been added which
          may be used by virtualization managers to register local
          VMs/containers. nspawn has been updated accordingly, and
          libvirt will be updated shortly. machined will collect a bit
          of meta information about the VMs/containers, and assign
          them their own scope unit (see above). The collected
          meta-data is then made available via the "machinectl" tool,
          and exposed in "ps" and similar tools. machined/machinectl
          is compile-time optional.

        * As discussed earlier, the low-level cgroup configuration
          options ControlGroup=, ControlGroupModify=,
          ControlGroupPersistent=, ControlGroupAttribute= have been
          removed. Please use high-level attribute settings instead as
          well as slice units.

        * A new bus call SetUnitProperties() has been added to alter
          various runtime parameters of a unit. This is primarily
          useful to alter cgroup parameters dynamically in a nice way,
          but will be extended later on to make more properties
          modifiable at runtime. systemctl gained a new set-properties
          command that wraps this call.

        * A new tool "systemd-run" has been added which can be used to
          run arbitrary command lines as transient services or scopes,
          while configuring a number of settings via the command
          line. This tool is currently very basic, however already
          very useful. We plan to extend this tool to even allow
          queuing of execution jobs with time triggers from the
          command line, similar in fashion to "at".

        * nspawn will now inform the user explicitly that kernels with
          audit enabled break containers, and suggest the user to turn
          off audit.

        * Support for detecting the IMA and AppArmor security
          frameworks with ConditionSecurity= has been added.

        * journalctl gained a new "-k" switch for showing only kernel
          messages, mimicking dmesg output; in addition to "--user"
          and "--system" switches for showing only user's own logs
          and system logs.

        * systemd-delta can now show information about drop-in
          snippets extending unit files.

        * libsystemd-bus has been substantially updated but is still
          not available as public API.

        * systemd will now look for the "debug" argument on the kernel
          command line and enable debug logging, similar to what
Michael Biebl's avatar
Michael Biebl committed
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          "systemd.log_level=debug" already did before.

        * "systemctl set-default", "systemctl get-default" has been
          added to configure the symlink, which
          controls what to boot into by default.

        * "systemctl set-log-level" has been added as a convenient
          way to raise and lower systemd logging threshold.

        * "systemd-analyze plot" will now show the time the various
          generators needed for execution, as well as information
          about the unit file loading.

        * libsystemd-journal gained a new sd_journal_open_files() call
          for opening specific journal files. journactl also gained a
          new switch to expose this new functionality. Previously we
          only supported opening all files from a directory, or all
          files from the system, as opening individual files only is
          racy due to journal file rotation.

        * systemd gained the new DefaultEnvironment= setting in
          /etc/systemd/system.conf to set environment variables for
          all services.

        * If a privileged process logs a journal message with the
          OBJECT_PID= field set, then journald will automatically
          augment this with additional OBJECT_UID=, OBJECT_GID=,
          OBJECT_COMM=, OBJECT_EXE=, ... fields. This is useful if
          system services want to log events about specific client
          processes. journactl/systemctl has been updated to make use
          of this information if all log messages regarding a specific
          unit is requested.

        Contributions from: Auke Kok, Chengwei Yang, Colin Walters,
        Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Albers, Daniel Wallace, Dave
        Reisner, David Coppa, David King, David Strauss, Eelco
        Dolstra, Gabriel de Perthuis, Harald Hoyer, Jan Alexander
        Steffens, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jason St. John, Johan
        Heikkilä, Karel Zak, Karol Lewandowski, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marius Vollmer,
        Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich, Michael Tremer,
        Michal Schmidt, Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Nirbheek Chauhan,
        Pierre Neidhardt, Ross Burton, Ross Lagerwall, Sean McGovern,
        Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar,
        Václav Pavlín, Zachary Cook, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek,
        Łukasz Stelmach, 장동준

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        * The Python bindings gained some minimal support for the APIs
          exposed by libsystemd-logind.

        * ConditionSecurity= gained support for detecting SMACK. Since
          this condition already supports SELinux and AppArmor we only
          miss IMA for this. Patches welcome!

        Contributions from: Karol Lewandowski, Lennart Poettering,
        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek


        * systemd-nspawn will now create /etc/resolv.conf if
          necessary, before bind-mounting the host's file onto it.

        * systemd-nspawn will now store meta information about a
          container on the container's cgroup as extended attribute
          fields, including the root directory.

        * The cgroup hierarchy has been reworked in many ways. All
          objects any of the components systemd creates in the cgroup
          tree are now suffixed. More specifically, user sessions are
          now placed in cgroups suffixed with ".session", users in
          cgroups suffixed with ".user", and nspawn containers in
          cgroups suffixed with ".nspawn". Furthermore, all cgroup
          names are now escaped in a simple scheme to avoid collision
          of userspace object names with kernel filenames. This work
          is preparation for making these objects relocatable in the
          cgroup tree, in order to allow easy resource partitioning of
          these objects without causing naming conflicts.

        * systemctl list-dependencies gained the new switches
          --plain, --reverse, --after and --before.

        * systemd-inhibit now shows the process name of processes that
          have taken an inhibitor lock.

        * nss-myhostname will now also resolve "localhost"
          implicitly. This makes /etc/hosts an optional file and
          nicely handles that on IPv6 ::1 maps to both "localhost" and
          the local hostname.

        * gained a new call
          sd_get_machine_names() to enumerate running containers and
          VMs (currently only supported by very new libvirt and
          nspawn). sd_login_monitor can now be used to watch
          VMs/containers coming and going.

        * .include is not allowed recursively anymore, and only in
          unit files. Usually it is better to use drop-in snippets in
          .d/*.conf anyway, as introduced with systemd 198.

        * systemd-analyze gained a new "critical-chain" command that
          determines the slowest chain of units run during system
          boot-up. It is very useful for tracking down where
          optimizing boot time is the most beneficial.

        * systemd will no longer allow manipulating service paths in
          the name=systemd:/system cgroup tree using ControlGroup= in
          units. (But is still fine with it in all other dirs.)

        * There's a new systemd-nspawn@.service service file that may
          be used to easily run nspawn containers as system
          services. With the container's root directory in
          /var/lib/container/foobar it is now sufficient to run
          "systemctl start systemd-nspawn@foobar.service" to boot it.

        * systemd-cgls gained a new parameter "--machine" to list only
          the processes within a certain container.

        * ConditionSecurity= now can check for "apparmor". We still
          are lacking checks for SMACK and IMA for this condition
          check though. Patches welcome!

        * A new configuration file /etc/systemd/sleep.conf has been
          added that may be used to configure which kernel operation
          systemd is supposed to execute when "suspend", "hibernate"
          or "hybrid-sleep" is requested. This makes the new kernel
          "freeze" state accessible to the user.

        * ENV{SYSTEMD_WANTS} in udev rules will now implicitly escape
          the passed argument if applicable.

        Contributions from: Auke Kok, Colin Guthrie, Colin Walters,
        Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner,
        Evangelos Foutras, Greg Kroah-Hartman, Harald Hoyer, Josh
        Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn,
        MUNEDA Takahiro, Mantas Mikulėnas, Mirco Tischler, Nathaniel
        Chen, Nirbheek Chauhan, Ronny Chevalier, Ross Lagerwall, Tom
        Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar, Ville Skyttä, Zbigniew


        * The output of 'systemctl list-jobs' got some polishing. The
          '--type=' argument may now be passed more than once. A new
          command 'systemctl list-sockets' has been added which shows
          a list of kernel sockets systemd is listening on with the
          socket units they belong to, plus the units these socket
          units activate.

        * The experimental libsystemd-bus library got substantial
          updates to work in conjunction with the (also experimental)
          kdbus kernel project. It works well enough to exchange
          messages with some sophistication. Note that kdbus is not
          ready yet, and the library is mostly an elaborate test case
          for now, and not installable.

        * systemd gained a new unit 'systemd-static-nodes.service'
          that generates static device nodes earlier during boot, and
          can run in conjunction with udev.

        * libsystemd-login gained a new call sd_pid_get_user_unit()
          to retrieve the user systemd unit a process is running
          in. This is useful for systems where systemd is used as
          session manager.

        * systemd-nspawn now places all containers in the new /machine
          top-level cgroup directory in the name=systemd
          hierarchy. libvirt will soon do the same, so that we get a
          uniform separation of /system, /user and /machine for system
          services, user processes and containers/virtual
          machines. This new cgroup hierarchy is also useful to stick
          stable names to specific container instances, which can be
          recognized later this way (this name may be controlled
          via systemd-nspawn's new -M switch). libsystemd-login also
          gained a new call sd_pid_get_machine_name() to retrieve the
          name of the container/VM a specific process belongs to.

        * bootchart can now store its data in the journal.

        * libsystemd-journal gained a new call
          sd_journal_add_conjunction() for AND expressions to the
          matching logic. This can be used to express more complex
          logical expressions.

        * journactl can now take multiple --unit= and --user-unit=

        * The cryptsetup logic now understands the "luks.key=" kernel
          command line switch for specifying a file to read the
          decryption key from. Also, if a configured key file is not
          found the tool will now automatically fall back to prompting
          the user.

        * Python systemd.journal module was updated to wrap recently
          added functions from libsystemd-journal. The interface was
          changed to bring the low level interface in s.j._Reader
          closer to the C API, and the high level interface in
          s.j.Reader was updated to wrap and convert all data about
          an entry.

        Contributions from: Anatol Pomozov, Auke Kok, Harald Hoyer,
        Henrik Grindal Bakken, Josh Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas Marius Vollmer,
        Martin Jansa, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michal Schmidt,
        Mirco Tischler, Pali Rohar, Simon Peeters, Steven Hiscocks,
        Tom Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek


        * journalctl --update-catalog now understands a new --root=
          option to operate on catalogs found in a different root

        * During shutdown after systemd has terminated all running
          services a final killing loop kills all remaining left-over
          processes. We will now print the name of these processes
          when we send SIGKILL to them, since this usually indicates a

        * If /etc/crypttab refers to password files stored on
          configured mount points automatic dependencies will now be
          generated to ensure the specific mount is established first
          before the key file is attempted to be read.

        * 'systemctl status' will now show information about the
          network sockets a socket unit is listening on.

        * 'systemctl status' will also shown information about any
          drop-in configuration file for units. (Drop-In configuration
          files in this context are files such as

        * systemd-cgtop now optionally shows summed up CPU times of
          cgroups. Press '%' while running cgtop to switch between
          percentage and absolute mode. This is useful to determine
          which cgroups use up the most CPU time over the entire
          runtime of the system. systemd-cgtop has also been updated
          to be 'pipeable' for processing with further shell tools.

        * 'hostnamectl set-hostname' will now allow setting of FQDN

        * The formatting and parsing of time span values has been
          changed. The parser now understands fractional expressions
          such as "5.5h". The formatter will now output fractional
          expressions for all time spans under 1min, i.e. "5.123456s"
          rather than "5s 123ms 456us". For time spans under 1s
          millisecond values are shown, for those under 1ms
          microsecond values are shown. This should greatly improve
          all time-related output of systemd.

        * libsystemd-login and libsystemd-journal gained new
          functions for querying the poll() events mask and poll()
          timeout value for integration into arbitrary event

        * localectl gained the ability to list available X11 keymaps
          (models, layouts, variants, options).

        * 'systemd-analyze dot' gained the ability to filter for
          specific units via shell-style globs, to create smaller,
          more useful graphs. I.e. it is now possible to create simple
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