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  <a href="../libudev/index.html">gudev </a><span style="float:right">systemd 215</span><hr><div class="refentry"><a name="systemd.journal-fields"></a><div class="titlepage"></div><div class="refnamediv"><h2>Name</h2><p>systemd.journal-fields — Special journal fields</p></div><div class="refsect1"><a name="idm214184810768"></a><h2 id="Description">Description<a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this headline" href="#Description"></a></h2><p>Entries in the journal resemble an environment
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                block in their syntax but with fields that can
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                include binary data. Primarily, fields are formatted
                UTF-8 text strings, and binary formatting is used only
                where formatting as UTF-8 text strings makes little
                sense. New fields may freely be defined by
                applications, but a few fields have special
                meaning. All fields with special meanings are
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                optional. In some cases, fields may appear more than
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                once per entry.</p></div><div class="refsect1"><a name="idm214184434256"></a><h2 id="User Journal Fields">User Journal Fields<a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this headline" href="#User%20Journal%20Fields"></a></h2><p>User fields are fields that are directly passed
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                from clients and stored in the journal.</p><div class="variablelist"><dl class="variablelist"><dt id="MESSAGE="><span class="term"><code class="varname">MESSAGE=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#MESSAGE="></a></dt><dd><p>The human-readable
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                                        message string for this
                                        entry. This is supposed to be
                                        the primary text shown to the
                                        user. It is usually not
                                        translated (but might be in
                                        some cases), and is not
                                        supposed to be parsed for meta
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                                        data.</p></dd><dt id="MESSAGE_ID="><span class="term"><code class="varname">MESSAGE_ID=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#MESSAGE_ID="></a></dt><dd><p>A 128-bit message
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                                        identifier ID for recognizing
                                        certain message types, if this
                                        is desirable. This should
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                                        contain a 128-bit ID formatted
                                        as a lower-case hexadecimal
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                                        string, without any separating
                                        dashes or suchlike. This is
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                                        recommended to be a
                                        UUID-compatible ID, but this is not
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                                        enforced, and formatted
                                        differently. Developers can
                                        generate a new ID for this
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                                        purpose with <span class="command"><strong>journalctl
                                        <code class="option">--new-id</code></strong></span>.
                                        </p></dd><dt id="PRIORITY="><span class="term"><code class="varname">PRIORITY=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#PRIORITY="></a></dt><dd><p>A priority value between
                                        0 ("<code class="literal">emerg</code>")
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                                        and 7
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                                        ("<code class="literal">debug</code>")
                                        formatted as a decimal
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                                        string. This field is
                                        compatible with syslog's
                                        priority concept.</p></dd><dt id="CODE_FILE="><span class="term"><code class="varname">CODE_FILE=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">CODE_LINE=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">CODE_FUNC=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#CODE_FILE="></a></dt><dd><p>The code location
                                        generating this message, if
                                        known. Contains the source
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                                        filename, the line number and
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                                        the function name.</p></dd><dt id="ERRNO="><span class="term"><code class="varname">ERRNO=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#ERRNO="></a></dt><dd><p>The low-level Unix error
                                        number causing this entry, if
                                        any. Contains the numeric
                                        value of
                                        <a href="errno.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">errno</span>(3)</span></a>
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                                        formatted as a decimal
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                                        string.</p></dd><dt id="SYSLOG_FACILITY="><span class="term"><code class="varname">SYSLOG_FACILITY=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">SYSLOG_IDENTIFIER=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">SYSLOG_PID=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#SYSLOG_FACILITY="></a></dt><dd><p>Syslog compatibility
                                        fields containing the facility
                                        (formatted as decimal string),
                                        the identifier string
                                        (i.e. "tag"), and the client
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                                        PID. (Note that the tag is
                                        usually derived from glibc's
                                        <code class="varname">program_invocation_short_name</code>
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                                        variable, see <a href="program_invocation_short_name.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">program_invocation_short_name</span>(3)</span></a>.)</p></dd></dl></div></div><div class="refsect1"><a name="idm214186362608"></a><h2 id="Trusted Journal Fields">Trusted Journal Fields<a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this headline" href="#Trusted%20Journal%20Fields"></a></h2><p>Fields prefixed with an underscore are trusted
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                fields, i.e. fields that are implicitly added by the
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                journal and cannot be altered by client code.</p><div class="variablelist"><dl class="variablelist"><dt id="_PID="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_PID=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">_UID=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">_GID=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_PID="></a></dt><dd><p>The process, user, and
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                                        group ID of the process the
                                        journal entry originates from
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                                        formatted as a decimal
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                                        string.</p></dd><dt id="_COMM="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_COMM=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">_EXE=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">_CMDLINE=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_COMM="></a></dt><dd><p>The name, the executable
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                                        path, and the command line of
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                                        the process the journal entry
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                                        originates from.</p></dd><dt id="_CAP_EFFECTIVE="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_CAP_EFFECTIVE=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_CAP_EFFECTIVE="></a></dt><dd><p>The effective <a href="capabilities.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">capabilities</span>(7)</span></a> of
                                        the process the journal entry
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                                        originates from.</p></dd><dt id="_AUDIT_SESSION="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_AUDIT_SESSION=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">_AUDIT_LOGINUID=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_AUDIT_SESSION="></a></dt><dd><p>The session and login
                                        UID of the process the journal
                                        entry originates from, as
                                        maintained by the kernel audit
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                                        subsystem.</p></dd><dt id="_SYSTEMD_CGROUP="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_SYSTEMD_CGROUP=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">_SYSTEMD_SESSION=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">_SYSTEMD_UNIT=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">_SYSTEMD_USER_UNIT=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">_SYSTEMD_OWNER_UID=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">_SYSTEMD_SLICE=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_SYSTEMD_CGROUP="></a></dt><dd><p>The control group path
                                        in the systemd hierarchy, the
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                                        systemd session ID (if any),
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                                        the systemd unit name (if
                                        any), the systemd user session
                                        unit name (if any), the owner
                                        UID of the systemd session (if
                                        any) and the systemd slice
                                        unit of the process the
                                        journal entry originates
                                        from.</p></dd><dt id="_SELINUX_CONTEXT="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_SELINUX_CONTEXT=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_SELINUX_CONTEXT="></a></dt><dd><p>The SELinux security
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                                        context (label) of the process
                                        the journal entry originates
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                                        from.</p></dd><dt id="_SOURCE_REALTIME_TIMESTAMP="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_SOURCE_REALTIME_TIMESTAMP=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_SOURCE_REALTIME_TIMESTAMP="></a></dt><dd><p>The earliest trusted
                                        timestamp of the message, if
                                        any is known that is different
                                        from the reception time of the
                                        journal. This is the time in
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                                        microseconds since the epoch UTC,
                                        formatted as a decimal
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                                        string.</p></dd><dt id="_BOOT_ID="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_BOOT_ID=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_BOOT_ID="></a></dt><dd><p>The kernel boot ID for
                                        the boot the message was
                                        generated in, formatted as
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                                        a 128-bit hexadecimal
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                                        string.</p></dd><dt id="_MACHINE_ID="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_MACHINE_ID=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_MACHINE_ID="></a></dt><dd><p>The machine ID of the
                                        originating host, as available
                                        in
                                        <a href="machine-id.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">machine-id</span>(5)</span></a>.</p></dd><dt id="_HOSTNAME="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_HOSTNAME=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_HOSTNAME="></a></dt><dd><p>The name of the
                                        originating host.</p></dd><dt id="_TRANSPORT="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_TRANSPORT=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_TRANSPORT="></a></dt><dd><p>How the entry was
                                        received by the journal
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                                        service. Valid transports are:
                                        </p><div class="variablelist"><dl class="variablelist"><dt id="
                                                                driver
                                                        "><span class="term">
                                                                <code class="option">driver</code>
                                                        </span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20driver%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20"></a></dt><dd><p>for
                                                                internally
                                                                generated
                                                                messages
                                                                </p></dd><dt id="
                                                                syslog
                                                        "><span class="term">
                                                                <code class="option">syslog</code>
                                                        </span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20syslog%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20"></a></dt><dd><p>for those
                                                                received via the
                                                                local syslog
                                                                socket with the
                                                                syslog protocol
                                                                </p></dd><dt id="
                                                                journal
                                                        "><span class="term">
                                                                <code class="option">journal</code>
                                                        </span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20journal%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20"></a></dt><dd><p>for those
                                                                received via the
                                                                native journal
                                                                protocol
                                                                </p></dd><dt id="
                                                                stdout
                                                        "><span class="term">
                                                                <code class="option">stdout</code>
                                                        </span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20stdout%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20"></a></dt><dd><p>for those
                                                                read from a
                                                                service's
                                                                standard output
                                                                or error output
                                                                </p></dd><dt id="
                                                                kernel
                                                        "><span class="term">
                                                                <code class="option">kernel</code>
                                                        </span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20kernel%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20"></a></dt><dd><p>for those
                                                                read from the
                                                                kernel
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                                                                </p></dd></dl></div></dd></dl></div></div><div class="refsect1"><a name="idm214184538176"></a><h2 id="Kernel Journal Fields">Kernel Journal Fields<a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this headline" href="#Kernel%20Journal%20Fields"></a></h2><p>Kernel fields are fields that are used by
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                messages originating in the kernel and stored in the
                journal.</p><div class="variablelist"><dl class="variablelist"><dt id="_KERNEL_DEVICE="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_KERNEL_DEVICE=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_KERNEL_DEVICE="></a></dt><dd><p>The kernel device
                                        name. If the entry is
                                        associated to a block device,
                                        the major and minor of the
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                                        device node, separated by "<code class="literal">:</code>"
                                        and prefixed by "<code class="literal">b</code>". Similar
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                                        for character devices but
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                                        prefixed by "<code class="literal">c</code>". For network
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                                        devices, this is the interface index
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                                        prefixed by "<code class="literal">n</code>". For all other
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                                        devices, this is the subsystem name
                                        prefixed by "<code class="literal">+</code>", followed by
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                                        "<code class="literal">:</code>", followed by the kernel
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                                        device name.</p></dd><dt id="_KERNEL_SUBSYSTEM="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_KERNEL_SUBSYSTEM=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_KERNEL_SUBSYSTEM="></a></dt><dd><p>The kernel subsystem name.</p></dd><dt id="_UDEV_SYSNAME="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_UDEV_SYSNAME=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_UDEV_SYSNAME="></a></dt><dd><p>The kernel device name
                                        as it shows up in the device
                                        tree below
                                        <code class="filename">/sys</code>.</p></dd><dt id="_UDEV_DEVNODE="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_UDEV_DEVNODE=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_UDEV_DEVNODE="></a></dt><dd><p>The device node path of
                                        this device in
                                        <code class="filename">/dev</code>.</p></dd><dt id="_UDEV_DEVLINK="><span class="term"><code class="varname">_UDEV_DEVLINK=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#_UDEV_DEVLINK="></a></dt><dd><p>Additional symlink names
                                        pointing to the device node in
                                        <code class="filename">/dev</code>. This
                                        field is frequently set more
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                                        than once per entry.</p></dd></dl></div></div><div class="refsect1"><a name="idm214185136352"></a><h2 id="Fields to log on behalf of a different program">Fields to log on behalf of a different program<a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this headline" href="#Fields%20to%20log%20on%20behalf%20of%20a%20different%20program"></a></h2><p>Fields in this section are used by programs
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                to specify that they are logging on behalf of another
                program or unit.
                </p><p>Fields used by the <span class="command"><strong>systemd-coredump</strong></span>
                coredump kernel helper:
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                </p><div class="variablelist"><dl class="variablelist"><dt id="COREDUMP_UNIT="><span class="term"><code class="varname">COREDUMP_UNIT=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">COREDUMP_USER_UNIT=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#COREDUMP_UNIT="></a></dt><dd><p>Used to annotate
                                        messages containing coredumps from
                                        system and session units.
                                        See
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                                        <a href="coredumpctl.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">coredumpctl</span>(1)</span></a>.
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                                        </p></dd></dl></div><p>Priviledged programs (currently UID 0) may
                attach <code class="varname">OBJECT_PID=</code> to a
                message. This will instruct
                <span class="command"><strong>systemd-journald</strong></span> to attach
                additional fields on behalf of the caller:</p><div class="variablelist"><dl class="variablelist"><dt id="OBJECT_PID=PID"><span class="term"><code class="varname">OBJECT_PID=<em class="replaceable"><code>PID</code></em></code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#OBJECT_PID=PID"></a></dt><dd><p>PID of the program that this
                                        message pertains to.
                                        </p></dd><dt id="OBJECT_UID="><span class="term"><code class="varname">OBJECT_UID=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">OBJECT_GID=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">OBJECT_COMM=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">OBJECT_EXE=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">OBJECT_CMDLINE=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">OBJECT_AUDIT_SESSION=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">OBJECT_AUDIT_LOGINUID=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">OBJECT_SYSTEMD_CGROUP=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">OBJECT_SYSTEMD_SESSION=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">OBJECT_SYSTEMD_OWNER_UID=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">OBJECT_SYSTEMD_UNIT=</code>, </span><span class="term"><code class="varname">OBJECT_SYSTEMD_USER_UNIT=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#OBJECT_UID="></a></dt><dd><p>These are additional fields added automatically
                                        by <span class="command"><strong>systemd-journald</strong></span>.
                                        Their meaning is the same as
                                        <code class="varname">_UID=</code>,
                                        <code class="varname">_GID=</code>,
                                        <code class="varname">_COMM=</code>,
                                        <code class="varname">_EXE=</code>,
                                        <code class="varname">_CMDLINE=</code>,
                                        <code class="varname">_AUDIT_SESSION=</code>,
                                        <code class="varname">_AUDIT_LOGINUID=</code>,
                                        <code class="varname">_SYSTEMD_CGROUP=</code>,
                                        <code class="varname">_SYSTEMD_SESSION=</code>,
                                        <code class="varname">_SYSTEMD_UNIT=</code>,
                                        <code class="varname">_SYSTEMD_USER_UNIT=</code>, and
                                        <code class="varname">_SYSTEMD_OWNER_UID=</code>
                                        as described above, except that the
                                        process identified by <em class="replaceable"><code>PID</code></em>
                                        is described, instead of the process
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                                        which logged the message.</p></dd></dl></div></div><div class="refsect1"><a name="idm214186169520"></a><h2 id="Address Fields">Address Fields<a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this headline" href="#Address%20Fields"></a></h2><p>During serialization into external formats, such
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                as the <a class="ulink" href="http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/export" target="_top">Journal
                Export Format</a> or the <a class="ulink" href="http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/json" target="_top">Journal
                JSON Format</a>, the addresses of journal entries
                are serialized into fields prefixed with double
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                underscores. Note that these are not proper fields when
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                stored in the journal but for addressing metadata of
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                entries. They cannot be written as part of structured
                log entries via calls such as
                <a href="sd_journal_send.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">sd_journal_send</span>(3)</span></a>. They
                may also not be used as matches for
                <a href="sd_journal_add_match.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">sd_journal_add_match</span>(3)</span></a></p><div class="variablelist"><dl class="variablelist"><dt id="__CURSOR="><span class="term"><code class="varname">__CURSOR=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#__CURSOR="></a></dt><dd><p>The cursor for the
                                        entry. A cursor is an opaque
                                        text string that uniquely
                                        describes the position of an
                                        entry in the journal and is
                                        portable across machines,
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                                        platforms and journal files.
                                        </p></dd><dt id="__REALTIME_TIMESTAMP="><span class="term"><code class="varname">__REALTIME_TIMESTAMP=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#__REALTIME_TIMESTAMP="></a></dt><dd><p>The wallclock time
                                        (<code class="constant">CLOCK_REALTIME</code>)
                                        at the point in time the entry
                                        was received by the journal,
                                        in microseconds since the epoch
                                        UTC, formatted as a decimal
                                        string. This has different
                                        properties from
                                        "<code class="literal">_SOURCE_REALTIME_TIMESTAMP=</code>",
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                                        as it is usually a bit later
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                                        but more likely to be monotonic.
                                        </p></dd><dt id="__MONOTONIC_TIMESTAMP="><span class="term"><code class="varname">__MONOTONIC_TIMESTAMP=</code></span><a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this term" href="#__MONOTONIC_TIMESTAMP="></a></dt><dd><p>The monotonic time
                                        (<code class="constant">CLOCK_MONOTONIC</code>)
                                        at the point in time the entry
                                        was received by the journal in
                                        microseconds, formatted as a decimal
259
                                        string. To be useful as an
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                                        address for the entry, this
                                        should be combined with with the
                                        boot ID in "<code class="literal">_BOOT_ID=</code>".
263
                                        </p></dd></dl></div></div><div class="refsect1"><a name="idm214184586832"></a><h2 id="See Also">See Also<a class="headerlink" title="Permalink to this headline" href="#See%20Also"></a></h2><p>
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                          <a href="systemd.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">systemd</span>(1)</span></a>,
                          <a href="journalctl.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">journalctl</span>(1)</span></a>,
                          <a href="journald.conf.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">journald.conf</span>(5)</span></a>,
                          <a href="sd-journal.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">sd-journal</span>(3)</span></a>,
268
                          <a href="coredumpctl.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">coredumpctl</span>(1)</span></a>,
269 270
                          <a href="systemd.directives.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">systemd.directives</span>(7)</span></a>
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